The Rape of the Lock
By Alexander Pope

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London n.d. Pope published a short, two canto version of this poem in 1712. He then reworked and republished the poem in a five-canto version in 1714; the main difference between the two is that he added the "apparatus" of fairies and sylphs that surround the human actors in the poem. That is the version of the poem that most readers since then have come to know. This text follows the first edition of the 1714 version. The digital text was originally produced by Oxford University Computing Services (13 Banbury Road, Oxford), for the Oxford Text Archive, and uploaded by Lou Burnard. Students and faculty have proofread the text and provided annotations for this Literature in Context edition. The page images and illustrations are reproduced from a copy of the first, 1714 edition, in the University of Virginia's Albert Small Special Collections Library.

Editorial Statements

Research informing these annotations draws on publicly-accessible resources, with links provided where possible. Annotations have also included common knowledge, defined as information that can be found in multiple reliable sources. If you notice an error in these annotations, please contact lic.open.anthology@gmail.com.

Original spelling and capitalization is retained, though the long s has been silently modernized and ligatured forms are not encoded.

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Materials have been transcribed from and checked against first editions, where possible. See the Sources section.


Citation

Pope, Alexander. The Rape of the Lock; An heroi-comical poem in five canto's. Literature in Context: An Open Anthology. https://anthologydev.lib.virginia.edu/work/Pope/pope-rape-lock. Accessed: 2020-04-05T23:05:45.327Z
[Frontispiece]

[frontispiece note]n00001

n00001The frontispiece was designed by Louis du Guernier (1677-1716) a well-known illustrator of the period; he also designed the images that appear before each of the five cantos. They were engraved by Claude du Bosc (1682-1745?); both men had been born in France but moved to London, probably in pursuit of the good opportunities for skilled engravers in the London book trade, and worked together on a number of projects for London patrons and booksellers in these years. Illustrations as detailed as these were very time-consuming and therefore expensive to produce, and the presence of six custom-engraved images was a sign that Pope and his publisher Bernard Lintot were trying to create a particularly impressive and beautiful object. Pope, who was a talented amateur painter in his own right, almost certainly had a role in designing the images, although we do not know exactly how he participated. The frontispiece is a composite of major events in the poem to follow. The "sylphs," spirits of vanity and erotic desire, float around Belinda, the heroine of the poem, as she puts on her makeup; they also drop playing cards, alluding to the card game in Canto III, and point to the shooting star that ascends at the end of Canto V. In the front lower right of the image, a satyr, with pointed ears and cloven hoofs, holds the kind of mask that women in the period sometimes wore in public; like many authors in the period, Pope is playing on the homophone between "satyr," the sexually-agressive half-human, half-animals of Greek mythology, and "satire," the literary form of which "The Rape of the Lock" is an example. Behind the characters is the facade of Hampton Court Palace, the royal home down the Thames from London where much of the action of the poem takes place. Pope clearly intended the images and the poem to be read together, a feature that is not possible in most modern reproductions of the poem, which rely on the poetic text alone. - [JOB]
[Title Page] The
Rape
of the Lock
n0001
n0001

Alexander Pope’s "The Rape of the Lock" is the most famous poem written in English in the eighteenth century. Chances are, if a modern reader knows only one poem from the period, this is the one. Which is a strange thing. The poem’s subject matter is unusual, even unique: the cutting off of a lock of hair from the head of a young woman and the aftermath of that event. And the poem is written in a form, the heroic couplet, that is rarely used today. But "The Rape of the Lock" has endured because it so fully captured, while also satirizing, an image of a particular world, a world of aristocratic ease, but also great anxiety. And it is also an astonishing accomplishment simply as a poem. No poet of the eighteenth century used the heroic couplet more deftly than Alexander Pope (depicted here in a contemporary painting by Charles Jervis; National Portrait Gallery, London), and perhaps nowhere in his career did he craft couplets and the larger units he built from them—verse paragraphs, cantos, the entire poem itself—with greater verve and delicacy.

The poem is based on a true story. At a party one day in 1710 or 1711, Robert Petre, a young man from an aristocratic family, crept up behind Arabella Fermor, a young woman also from a prosperous household, and cut off a lock of her hair. Petre may have thought of this as an amusing, or even a flirtatious prank, but she was angry, and the two families started snubbing and sniping at each other. Years later, Pope described what happened next: “The stealing of Miss Belle Fermor’s hair was taken too seriously, and caused an estrangement between the two families, though they had lived long in great friendship before. A common acquaintance and well-wisher to both desired me to write a poem to make a jest of it, and laugh them together again. It was in this view that I wrote my Rape of the Lock, which was well received and had its effect in the two families.” The “common acquaintance” was John Caryll, a friend of Pope’s who was also close to both the Fermor and Petre families. Like all of them, Caryll was also a Catholic who faced persecution in an era when the government of Britain continued to suspect that Catholics were potentially a subversive force whose loyalties to the Protestant monarchy could not be assured. (And sometimes with reason; Caryll was a Jacobite, a supporter of the exiled Pretender, the Stuart James III, who continued to claim that he was the true king of Britain. Caryll never joined in any of the conspiracies that took place in this period to restore the Stuart monarchy, but he did secretly, and illegally, support a Catholic church in his neighborhood.) Caryll may have felt that Catholics in Britain had enough problems without feuding among themselves. Pope, who was at this point starting work on a massive translation of Homer’s poem The Iliad, seems quickly to have seen the possibility of re-imagining the incident in epic terms, creating what has been called a “mock epic” for the way in which it uses the conventions of epic poetry to describe what is by comparison a trivial event.

Pope’s memory of the happy outcome of the poem was, however, a little rose colored from time. Pope wrote the first version of "The Rape of the Lock" quickly—he said it took two weeks; he may have been exaggerating—and it then circulated among the families and their friends in manuscript for a while. That version of the poem, which was much shorter than the one that has ultimately been most read, was published anonymously in 1712, and at this point things got more complicated. As more and more people read the poem now that it was in print, the double entendres and erotic implications of Pope’s work became clearer, and Arabella Fermor—who had initially agreed with letting the poem be printed—was embarrassed as friends started pointing out to her where the dirty jokes were. Sir Charles Brown, the original for the “Sir Plume” of the poem, was also angry at the way he was portrayed (as an idiot). Pope went back to work, and over the course of the next couple of years, added the elaborate “machinery” of the poem, the sylphs and fairies that hover around the action, embedding the original story in a framework of fantasy that deflects some of the agency of the central characters. (Robert Petre’s response to the publication of the first version of the poem is, by the way, unrecorded. Petre married Catherine Walsmeley in 1712, but he died only a few months later from smallpox.) Pope included a letter of dedication to Arabella Fermor that aimed to defuse some of her anger. That new edition, handsomely printed with engravings accompanying each canto, was published as a separate volume in 1714, and immediately became a best-seller, selling around 3,000 copies in four days, which even now would be an extraordinary total for any book, much less a poem in rhyming couplets. It has been admired, critiqued, and argued with ever since.

- [JOB]

AN
HEROI-COMICALn001 n001Pope is the inventor of this term, which first appeared here at the opening of The Rape of the Lock. He is indicating that he will emulate such epics as Homer's Iliad or Milton's Paradise Lost, but in a comic register. - [JOB]
POEM.
In Five Canto's




A tonso est hoc nomen adepta capillo.n002 n002The full quote, which comes from Book VIII of Ovid's Metamorphoses, should read, "Ciris et, a tonso est hoc nomen adepta capillo": she acquired the name from the cutting of the hair. Ovid's story, first published in 8 CE, goes like this. Nisus was the King of Alcathous and he had a lock of purple hair on hiscrown that guaranteed the safety of his kingdom. Scylla, his daughter, fell in love with King Minos, who was conquering this kingdom, and in order to gain his favor, Scylla cut off the lock of her father's hair. But, disgusted with her disloyalty, Minos left by ship. As Scylla swam after Minos, King Nisos, having been transformed into a sea eagle, attempted to drown her. Instead of drowning,Scylla was turned to a sea bird and called Ciris, (cutter), being named after the lock that she cut off. See Ovid's Metamorphoses, translated by Anthony S. Kline, http://ovid.lib.virginia.edu/trans/Metamorph8.htm - [UVAstudstaff]
OVID.

LONDON
Printed for Bernard Lintott, at the
Cross-keys in Fleetstreet. 1714.


[Epistle.1] TO
Mrs. ARABELLA FERMOUR.n003

n003Arabella Fermor (1696-1737; image credit: Victoria and Albert Museum) was from a prominent Catholic family, and she came to public attention in an unwelcome way when Robert Petre, from another prominent Catholic family, surreptitiously cut off a lock of her hair. She was (justifiably) angry, and the Fermor and Petre families (who may have been in negotiations to marry the two), became estranged. John Caryll, a friend of Pope's and also Robert Petre's guardian, asked Pope to write about the incident in such a way as to make a joke of it and smooth relations. The Rape of the Lock is Pope's effort to heal the breach. He did not, however, ask Arabella Fermor for her approval before publishing the first version of the poem in 1712, and she was initially unhappy at the poem's double-entendre and the way that it seemed to compare her situation to raped heroines of antiquity like Helen of Troy or Lucrece. This letter, published with the much-enlarged 1714 edition of the poem, can be read in part as Pope's attempt to mollify her. - [JOB]


MADAM,


It will be in vain to deny that I have some value for this piece, since I dedicaten004 n004Pope is probably referring to the Latin epigraph that appeared with the first edition of the poem: "Nolueram, Belinda, tuos violare capillos, / Sed juvat hoc precibus me tribuisse tuis," by the Roman poet Martial, in his Epigrams xii, 84, translates as, "I was loathe, Belinda, to violate your locks, but I am pleased to have granted that much to your prayers." Pope is insinuating that Arabella Fermor asked for the poem to be written. This was not the case. it to you. Yet you may bear me witness, it was intended only to divert a few young [Epistle.2] Ladies, who have good sense and good Humour enough, to laugh not only at their sex's little unguarded Follies, but at their own. But as it was communicated with the Air of a Secret, it soon found its Way into the World. An imperfect Copy having been offer'd to a Bookseller, You had the Good-Nature for my Saken005 n005An earlier edition of this work had no letter to Arabella Fermor. Instead there was a different Latin motto, as noted earlier. Apparently, even though J. Caryll asked Pope to write it, The Rape of The Lock was written without the knowledge and permission of Arabella. Upon finding out that it displeased her, Pope wrote this letter to appease her, and with the current Latin phrase at the beginning. Here, he is praising her good nature to have allowed him to publish a more correct version. to consent to the publication of one more correct: This I was forc'd to before I had executed half my Design, for the Machineryn006 n006Refers to the fairy-like creatures that are in the poems; the sylphys, the nymphs, the gnomes, the salamanders. As he explains in the next line, they are the portrayals of what we would call in the real world, deities, angels or demons. was entirely wanting to compleat it.

The Machinery Madam, is a Term invented by the Critiks, to signify that Part which the Deities, Angels, or Dæmons, are made to act in a poem: For the ancient Poets are in one respect like [Epistle.3] many modern Ladies; Let an Action be never so trivial in it self, they always make it appear of the utmost Importance. These Machines I determin'd to raise on a very new and odd Foundation, the Rosicruciann007 n007Pope is referring to a non-religious order who "are a community of Seekers who study and practice the metaphysical laws governing the universe." "The Rosicrucian movement, of which the Rosicrucian Order, AMORC, is the most prominent modern representative, has its roots in the mystery traditions, philosophy, and myths of ancient Egypt dating back to approximately 1500 BCE In antiquity the word “mystery” referred to a special gnosis, a secret wisdom." He explains some part of their philosophy, as it relates to the poem, in the next few lines. "Understanding Reincarnation & Esoteric Teachings of Rosicrucians." The Rosicrucian Order, AMORC. placemakinggroupcom. Web. 5 Dec 2015 Doctrine of Spirits.



I know how disagreeable it is to make use of hard Words before a Ladyn008 n008This statement offers the reader a little flavor of how women were perceived in the public imagination during 1714.; but 'tis so much the Concern of a Poet to have his Works understood, and particularly by your Sex, that You must give me leave to explain two or three difficult Terms.




The Rosicrucians are the People I must bring You acquainted with. The best Account I know of them is in the French Book call'd Le Comte de Gabalisn009, n00917th-century French text by Abbé Nicolas-Pierre-Henri de Montfaucon de Villars (1635-1673) The titular "Comte de Gabalis" ("Count of Cabala") is an occultist who explains the mysteries of the world to the author. See "Paracelsian Spirits in Pope's Rape of the Lock," Airy Nothings: Imagining the Otherworld of Faerie from the Middle Ages to the Age of Reason: Essays in Honour of Alasdair A. McDonald. Ed. Karin Olsen and Jan Veenstra. Vol 222. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2014. Print. which [Epistle.4] both in its Title and Size is so like a Novel, that many of the fair Sex have read it for one by Mistake.n010 n010Pope's use of mistake lends an eye into the status of the novel in popular culture at this time. To an English reader of 1714, the word "novel" still sounded like a French import, and it would have denoted a short, perhaps slightly scandalous, love story. The novel was not understood to be a genre capable of intricate themes. Any reading of a novel for more than entertainment is a "mistake" This was a popular stance given how new the form was, not nearly as well established as the 3,000 year old epic poetry of Homer and Virgil. According to these Gentlemen, the four Elements are inhabited by Spirits, which they call Sylphs, Gnomes, Nymphs, and Salamanders. The Gnomes, or Dæmons of Earth, delight in Mischief; but the Sylphs, whose Habitation is Air, are the best-condition'd Creatures imaginable. For the say, any Mortals may enjoy the most intimate Fa miliarities with these gentle Spirits, upon a Condition very easie to all true Adepts, an involate Preservation of Chastity.


As to the following Canto's, all the Passages of them are as Fabulous, as the Vision at the beginning, or the Transformation at the End; (except the Loss of your [Epistle.5] Hair, which I always name with Reverence.) The Human Persons are as Fictitious as the Airy ones; and the Character of Belinda, as it is now manag'd, resembles You in nothing but in Beauty.


If this Poem had as many Graces as there are in Your Person, or in Your Mind, yet I could never hope it should pass thro' the World half so Uncensured as You have done. But let its Fortune be what it will, mine is happy enough, to have given me this Occasion of assuring You that I am. with the truest Esteem,

Madam
Your Most Obedient
Humble Servant.



A. POPE.
[Engraving] 1 THE
RAPE of the LOCK.
CANTO I. 1WHAT dire Offence from am'rous Causes springs, 2What mighty Quarrels rise from Trivial Things, 3 I sing -- This Verse to C---ln012 n012He is referring to John Caryll, Sr. (1667-1736), the IInd Baron Caryll of Durford. Caryll, Sr. was a close friend of Pope and the guardian of Baron Petre, who was the perpetrator of the crime of cutting off a lock of Arabella's hair in real life. Caryll requested Pope to write about the incident. Rogers, Pat. The Alexander Pope Encyclopedia. Westport: Greenwood, 2004. Print. Erskine-Hill, Howard. The Social Milieu of Alexander Pope: Lives, Example, and the Poetic Response. Illustrated ed. New Haven: Yale UP, 1975. 344. Print., Muse! is due; 6 This, ev'n Belindan013 n013The heroine of the poem, inspired by Arabella Fermor, even though Pope says they are similar only in beauty. Pope, Alexander. The Rape of The Lock. London: Bernard Lintott. 1714. may vouchsafe to view: 7Slight is the Subject, but not so the Praise, 8If She inspire, and He approve my Lays. 2 1Say what strange Motive, Goddess! cou'd compel 2 A well-bred Lord t'assault a gentle Belle? 3Oh say what stranger Causen014n014Pope is prefacing the reader for the poem. Take note of the delaying of information. He cannot simply give us the reason for these cantos without explaining everything that has come up to this moment. This device satirizes classical epics and their introductions as Homer invokes the muses who inspired the Iliad, except this time the muse is his friend Carryl., yet unexplor'd, 4 Cou'd make a gentle Belle reject a Lord ? 5And dwells such Rage in softest Bosoms then? 6And lodge such daring Souls in Little Men? 7Soln015 n015Sol is Latin for the Sun. "sol, n.1." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 5 December 2015. thro' white Curtains did his Beams display, 8 And op'd those Eyes which brighter shine than they; 9 Now Shockn016 n016Shock is Belinda's dog. In lines 115-116, it says that Shock leapt up and woke his mistress with his tongue. In other editions, "shock" is replaced with "lap dog." Pope, Alexander. Canto I. The Rape of The Lock. London: Bernard Lintott. 1714. had giv'n himself the rowzing Shake, 10 And Nymphs prepar'd their Chocolaten017 n017According to a "literary kitchen" blog entry entitled "A Literary History of Chocolate: Part 1," chocolate was a breakfast drink for those who could afford such a luxurious meal.Belinda, being both wealthy and frivolous, can afford to drink such a meal while businessmen drank coffee in the morning. The reference to the drink is meant to draw attention to the characters' failure "to distinguish between serious matters and pleasure", thus ridiculing Arabella's drastic response to what was meant to be a simple prank. Litkit88 [Nico and Amy]. "A Literary History of Chocolate: Part 1." Wordpress. Wordpress, 27 Sept. 2015. Web. 8 Dec. 2015. to take; 11 Thrice the wrought Slipper knock'd against the Groundn018 n018Belinda stomped her slippered foot against the ground three times, calling for her maids. "No. 2217." The Athenaeum: Journal of Literature, Science, the Fine Arts, Music and the Drama, Vol. 3030. London: John Francis. 1870. Print. Orginial from National Library of the Netherlands, 12And striking Watches n019 n019Striking watches indicate the hour and quarter-hour by means of hammers hitting bells or gongs. The watch rang, announcing that it was 10 o'clock. Nardin, Yannick. "Striking Watches." Fondation De La Haute Horlogerie. Fondation De La Haute Horlogerie/Virtua SA, 2009. Web. 5 Dec. 2015. https://www.hautehorlogerie.org/en/encyclopaedia/watches/complication-watches/d/s/striking-watches/.the tenth Hour resound. 13 Belinda still her downy Pillow prest, 14 Her Guardian Sylphn020 n020As Pope has explained in the introductory letter, there are four groups of fairy like creatures that guard over women: Sylphs, Nymphs, Gnomes, and Salamanders. We are introduced to Belinda's guardian, a sylph, here nameless, but later, called Ariel. (line 106) Jan, K. M., and Shabnam Firdaus. "Rape of the Lock by Pope." A Guide to English Literature. New Delhi: Atlantic & Distributors, 2003. Print. Pope, Alexander. Canto I. The Rape of The Lock. London: Bernard Lintott. 1714. prolong'd the balmy Restn021 n021sleep "rest" The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language, Volume 3. Ed. Charles Annadale. Comp. John Ogilvie. Vol. 3. Glasgow, Edinburgh, London: Blackie and Son, 1883. Print.. 15'Twas he n022 n022Ariel, Belinda's guardian Sylph, created the dream that she was having. (interpretive/explanatory note - AG)had summon'd to her silent Bed 16The Morning Dream that hover'd o'er her Head. 17 A Youth more glitt'ring than a Birth-night Beaun023 n023referring to someone more decked up and beautiful than a man would be on his birthday. birth-night: the night on which a person is born; the night annually kept in memory of someone's birth; evening of a court birthday on which a festival was held. "birthnight, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 5 December 2015. beau: A man who gives particular, or excessive, attention to dress, mien, and social etiquette; an exquisite, a fop, a dandy. "beau, adj. and n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 5 December 2015. , 18 (That ev'n in Slumber caus'd her Cheek to glow) 3 19Seem'd to her Ear his winning Lips to lay, 20And thus in Whispers said, or seem'd to say. 21Fairest of Mortalsn024 n024Addressing Belinda in her sleep. She is the fairest of mortals and under the care of the fairy creatures. (interpretive/explanatory note - AG), thou distinguish'd Care 22Of thousand bright Inhabitants of Air! 23If e'er one Vision touch'd thy infant Thought, 24Of all the Nurse and all the Priest have taught, 25Of airy Elves by Moonlight Shadows seen, 26The silver Tokenn025n025Folklore that says that fairies and elves left silver tokens in rings of dark coarse grass that were supposed to be where fairies danced. The tokens were supposedly left for humans who were favored by fairies. Pat Rogers attributes the use to Jonathan Swift's, Dryades: Or, the Nymphs Prophesy, although that probably comes from ancient folklore as well. Rogers, Pat. "Faery Lore and The Rape of the Lock." Essays on Pope. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1993. Print., and the circled Green, 27Or Virgins visited by Angel-Pow'rsn026n026An allusion to Ovid's Metamorphoses. In Book 1, Ovid tells the story of Daphne and Apollo. Apollo is struck by Cupid's arrow making him obsessively enamored with a virgin nymph Daphne. Cupid, however, struck Daphne with an arrow that makes her despise Apollo. So she flees him, but Apollo finally catches her. Rather than be with Apollo, Daphne asks her father for help. He, being a river god, turns her into a laurel tree. Laurels, of course, are used to construct crown wreaths., 28 With Golden Crowns and Wreaths of heav'nly Flowers, 29Hear and believe! thy own Importance know, 30Nor bound thy narrow Views to Things below. 31Some secret Truths from Learned Pride conceal'd, 32To Maids alone and Children are reveal'd: 33What tho' no Credit doubting Wits may give? 34The Fair and Innocent shall still believe. 35Know then, unnumbered Spirits round thee fly, 36 The light Militian028n028The light Militia are the fairy creatures. The lower sky is their dwelling, the sky as it exists on Earth, as opposed to Heaven, where Angels dwell. While the creatures and setting are inspired by Le Comte de Gabalis, Pope uses language that is more aligned with Milton's depiction of Satan organizing his angels, In Paradise Lost, according to Jan Veenstra, in a collection of essays on fairy creatures. "Paracelsian Spirits in Pope's Rape of the Lock," Airy Nothings: Imagining the Otherworld of Faerie from the Middle Ages to the Age of Reason: Essays in Honour of Alasdair A. McDonald. Ed. Karin Olsen and Jan Veenstra. Vol 222. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2014. Print. of the lower Sky; 4 37These, tho' unseen, are ever on the Wingn029n029The creatures are always present (on the wing meaning in flight) in the places where London's society is found., 38 Hang o'er the Boxn030n030A ‘box’ in a theatre or opera-house. , and hover round the Ringn031n031Ring - Charles I created a circular track called the Ring in Hyde Park where members of the royal court could drive their carriages. The park was opened to the public in 1637 and it soon became a fashionable place to visit, particularly on May Day. "Landscape History." The Royal Parks. Web. 5 Dec. 2015. https://www.royalparks.org.uk/parks/hyde-park/about-hyde-park/landscape-history.. 39Think what an Equipagen033n033Here it refers to a carriage with horses and attendants, but can also just mean carriage alone. It also has other uses that deal with military garb, or things needed for a military expedition, or general "get up" or dress. "equipage, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 5 December 2015. thou hast in Air, 40 And view with scorn Two Pages and a Chairn034n034As an antithetical image to the equipage afforded to Belinda by the Sylphs, "Two Pages and a Chair" refers to the attendants who would carry the lady on a chair. In Britain they are called sedan chairs but there are similar "vehicles" all over the the world. Also called litters, or "gestatorial chair" for the Pope. T. Atkinson Jenkins. "Origin of the Word Sedan", Hispanic Review, Vol. 1, No. 3 (July 1933), pp. 240-242). 41As now your own, our Beings were of old, 42And once inclos'd in Woman's beauteous Moldn036n036The fairy creatures used to be beautiful women like Belinda. (interpretive/explanatory note - AG); 43Thence, by a soft Transitionn037n037Possibly death, or some (magical) means by which they are transformed from their human selves in to the fairy creatures. "transition, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 5 December 2015., we repair 44From earthly n038 n038the human body earthly - pertaining to physical, worldly, material. "earthly, adj. and n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 5 December 2015. vehicle - vessel for carrying something, as in possibly the human soul. "vehicle, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 5 December 2015.Vehicles to these of Air. 45Think not, when Woman's transient Breath is fled, 46That all her Vanities at once are dead: 47Succeeding Vanities she still regards, 48And tho' she plays no more, o'erlooks the Cardsn039 n039Implies that life is a game of cards, specifically the game of Ombre. After the "transition" spoken of earlier, a woman or her "vanities," still can see and look at the cards although she does not play.. 49Her Joy in gilded Chariots, when alive, 50 And Love of Ombren040 n040A trick-taking card game for three people using forty cards. A game of Ombre is played later on and is described in detail in Canto III. It is almost certainly no coincidence that the word ombre is archaic Spanish for "man"; Belinda is literally and figuratively playing the game of man."ombre, n.1." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 5 December 2015., after Death survive. 51For when the Fairn041 n041referring to women; the fairer (also gentler, softer, weaker, etc.) sex. "sex, n.1." Oxford English Dictionary Oxford University Press Web. 5 December 2015. in all their Pride expire, 52To their first Elements n042 n042The four types of fairy creatures as he explained in the introductory letter: "the four Elements are inhabited by Spirits, which they call Sylphs, Gnomes, Nymphs, and Salamanders." Pope, Alexander. Letter to Arabella Fermor. The Rape of The Lock. London: Bernard Lintott. 1714.the Souls retire: 53The Sprights of fiery Termagants in Flamen043 n043Explanation of which types of woman became which spirit or element. The fiery boisterous women became Salamanders The mild demure women became Nymphs. Th3 prudish women became Gnomes. The flirty girlish women became Sylphs. 54 Mount up, and take a Salamander's Name. 55Soft yielding Minds to Water glide away, 56 And sip with Nymphs, their Elemental Tea. 5 57 The graver Prude sinks downward to a Gnome , 58In search of Mischief still on Earth to roam. 59 The light Coquettes in Sylphs aloft repair, 60And sport and flutter in the Fields of Air. 61Know farther yet; Whoever fair and chaste 62 Rejects Mankind, is by some Sylph embrac'd: 63For Spirits, freed from mortal Laws, with ease 64Assume what Sexes and what Shapes they please. 65What guards the Purity of melting Maids, 66In Courtly Ballsn044 n044Pope cites all desirable things that men tend to do to woo the girl such as "Courtly Balls,""Midnight Masquerades," and the "Whisper in the Dark." Even when these conventions "prompts" young women to consider falling for the man, even when the "musick softens" there is something unnatural preventing these conventions from working., and Midnight Masquerades, 67 Safe from the treach'rous Friend, and daring Spark, 68The Glance by Day, the Whisper in the Dark; 69When kind Occasion prompts their warm Desires, 70When Musick softens, and when Dancing fires? 71 'Tis but their Sylph, the wife Celestials know, 72 Tho' Honourn045 n045This refers to the fact that all the works the spirits do to safeguard their maids'purity is seen by humans as something else. The description that mortals use for this phenomenon is 'being honorable' while the Celestials know that all of it is a guardian Sylph's doing. (interpretive note - AG) is the Word with Men below. 73 Some Nymphsn046 n046The nymphs to whom these lines refer are the type of sprites, Gnomes, that urge young ladies to be proud to the point where they refuse the offers of gentlemen. Once the women embrace this vanity, there is no going back and they are left to live under the vain influence of the Gnomes for the rest of their lives. there are, too conscious of their Face, 74 For Life predestin'd to the Gnomes Embrace 6 75Who swell their Prospects and exalt their Priden047 n047Pope is citing vanity as an issue in his world. He is able to make such criticisms because he has changed the story about nymphs and modeled it after epic poetry., 76When Offers are disdain'd, and Love deny'd. 77Then gay Ideas crowd the vacant Brain; 78 While Peers and Dukes, and all their sweeping Train, 79And Garters, Stars, and Coronets appear, 80 And in soft Sounds, Your Grace salutes their Earn048 n048This is the second time imagery of whispering is used. Earlier, Pope states that when men wish to seduce their women they "whisper in the dark." Here, when the mood is established with "soft sounds" the Sylph "salutes their Ear." In both scenarios, the decision to have sex or not have sex is decided by a seductive whisper. The women are not allowed to decide by their own agency, but must rather be lured to or away from their decision.. 81'Tis these that early taint the Female Soul, 82 Instruct the Eyes of young Coquettesn049 n049Pope is calling out against the trend of women to "tease" men all with the purpose of denying them later. He is blaming the gnomes for teaching young women to "roll" their eyes at the advances of men. Pope seems really upset when women lead him on as Canto 1 dedicates a portion of the text expressing the disdain. to roll, 83Teach Infants Cheeks a bidden Blush to know, 84 And little Hearts to flutter at a Beau. 85Oft when the World imagine Women stray, 86 The Sylphs thro' mystick Mazes guide thier Way, 87Thro' all the giddy Circlen050 n050Circle is a poetic term for the world or the globe. they pursue, 88And old Impertinence expel by new. 89What tender Maid but must a Victim fall 90To one Man's Treat, but for another's Ball? 91 When Florion051 n051Not a reference to any specific men. Florio, along with Damon, were common names used in early epic poetry to refer to men in general, the way we use, Tom, Dick, and Harry, today. "The aristocratic young men of the time were, like the ladies, lacking in any serious purpose or morality. Florio and Damon are representatives of those gallants and fops who vie with one another to capture the hearts of the ladies." "The Rape of the Lock" Is the Best Example of Relationship between Literature and Society." NeoEnglish. 1 Aug. 2010. Web. 5 Dec. 2015. speaks, what Virgin could withstand, 92 If gentle Damonn051 did not squeeze her Hand? 7 93With varying Vanities, from ev'ry Part, 94They shift the moving Toyshop of their Heart; 95Where Wigs with Wigs, with Sword-knots Sword-knots strive, 96Beaus banish Beaus, and Coaches Coaches drive. 97This erring Mortals Levity may call, 98 Oh blind to Truth! the Sylphs contrive it all. 99sOf these am I, who thy Protection claim, 100 A watchful Sprite, and Ariel is my Name. 101Late, as I rang'd the Crystal Wilds of Air, 102 In the clear Mirror of thy ruling Star 103I saw, alas! some dread Eventn053 n053The epic warning regarding the endangerment of Belinda's purity conveyed by Ariel stems from his reading of bad omens by studying the air and looking to the stars. According to Encyclopedia Britannica, omens could be interpreted by patterns of nature, whether by cloud movements, flight of birds, or even air patterns and astrology, as described by Pope. "omen". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2015. Web. 08 Dec. 2015 impend, 104E're to the Mainn054 n054(n.) the open sea "main, n.1." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015. this Morning's Sun descend. 105But Heav'n reveals not what, or how, or where: 106 Warn'd by thy Sylph , oh Pious Maid beware! 107This to disclose is all thy Guardian can. 108Beware of all, but most beware of Man! 109He said; when Shock, who thought she slept too long, 110Leapt up, and wak'd his Mistress with his Tongue. 8 111'Twas then Belinda! if Report say true, 112Thy Eyes first open'd on a Billet-douxn055 n055(n.) a love letter. Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press, n.d. Web. 08 December 2015.; 113 Wounds, Charms, and Ardors, were no sooner read 114But all the Vision vanish'd from thy Head. 114And now, unveil'd, the Toiletn056 n056The toilet mentioned in this stanza refers most directly to a dressing table. These tables evolved in the 18th century from small tables with two or three drawers to elaborate pieces of furniture that could hold any and all accessories needed for daily grooming. "dressing table"; Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2015. Web. 08 Dec. 2015 stands display'd, 116Each Silver Vase in mystic Order laid. 117First, rob'd in White, the Nymph intent adores 118 With Head uncover'd, the cosmetic Pow'rs. 119A heav'nly Image in the Glassn057 n057mirror appears, 120To that she bends, to that her Eyes she rears; 121Th' inferior Priestess, at her Altar'sn058 n058Belinda's "toilet" is likened to an "altar" at which Belinda and her maid are now left to worship the priestess, or Belinda's "heav'nly image" as mentioned two lines above this line. By this point, it has become clear that the vanity nurtured by the Gnomes has set in, leaving the mortal human beings to worship a new priestess, Belinda's reflection.side, 122Trembling, begins the sacred Rites of Priden059 n059This "rite of pride" is an allusion to a religious rite that might take place as a hero prepares for battle in his own ritualized manner. The objects involved in the performance of this "rite" are simple objects with earthly purposes, just as the objects would be with the readying of a hero, thus making this a reference to traditional epic poetry Pope is imitating. Epics always involve otherwordly forces, such as gods, and most actions take place in deference to these forces. Thus, it would not be unusual to perform some form of sacred rite before embarking into battle, whether the battle is one of swords and death or one of mere social interaction. "Six Elements of the Epic." Webpages. University of Idaho, n.d. Web. 8 Dec. 2015.. 123Unnumber'd Treasures ope at once, and here 124The various Off'rings of the World n060 n060During the 18th century, Britain became the dominant empire among European trading empires as it became the first western nation to industrialize. During this time, merchants began trading with both North America and the West Indies, where colonies had been established. This granted Britain access to parts of the world and their amenities that had previously been unbeknownst to them. The ability to interact with far-off countries such as India and Arabia yielded new luxuries and a new understanding of the world outside of Europe. The ability for Belinda to have access to these luxuries further exemplifies her wealth. Morgan, Kenneth. "Symbiosis: Trade and the British Empire." History. BBC, 17 Feb. 2011. Web. 8 Dec. 2015.appear; 125From each she nicely culls with curious Toil, 126And decks the Goddess with the glitt'ring Spoiln061n061"Glitt'ring spoil" refers directly to the spoils of war, "valuables seized by violence, especially in war," most likely as a result of the colonization of these foreign lands in pursuit of broadening trade opportunities. "Spoils." Collins English Dictionary 5th Edition. HarperCollins Publishers, 2000. Reverso.com Web. 8 Dec. 2015.. 127 This Casketn062 n062a. A small box or chest for jewels, letters, or other things of value, itself often of valuable material and richly ornamented. "casket, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 5 December 2015. India 's glowing Gemsn063 n063Since before recorded history, India has been a leading source for precious gems, producing some of the finest gemstones. "Aquamarine from Karur India - Fine Blue Aquamarine Gems Mined in India." Aquamarine from Karur India - Fine Blue Aquamarine Gems Mined in India. GemSelect.com, 2005. Web. 5 Dec. 2015. http://www.gemselect.com/help/newsletter/newsletter-aug-12.php. unlocks, 128 And all Arabian064 n064Refers to scented oils or perfumes from the Arabian Peninsula or the middle east. as it is now known. They came in elaborate and ornate containers and were very expensive. breaths from yonder Box. 9 129The Tortoise here and Elephant n065 n065Refers to the jewelry that was made from or with tortoise shell and ivory from elephant tusks. "Endangered Jewelry | JCK." Endangered Jewelry | JCK. JCK Magazine, 1 May 1998. Web. 5 Dec. 2015. http://www.jckonline.com/2015/10/21/endangered-jewelry*.unite, 130 Transform'd to Combs, the speckled and the white. 131Here Files of Pins extend their shining Rows, 132Puffs, Powders, Patchesn066n066"a small disk of black silk attached to the face, especially as worn by women in the 17th and 18th centuries for adornment" (OED) This is essentially an artificial beauty mark. "patch, n.1." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015., Bibles, Billet-doux. 133Now awfuln067 n067Awful: (adj.) awe-inspiring "awful, adj." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.Beauty puts on all its Armsn068n068Arms: (n.) weapons With the use of militaristic diction as seen in "puts in all its Arms", Pope has Belinda preparing for battle just as Achilles prepared for the Trojan War in "The Illiad", further establishing "The Rape of the Lock" as a mock epic. "arm, n.2." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.; 134The Fair each moment rises in her Charms, 135Repairs her Smiles, awakens ev'ry Grace, 136And calls forth all the Wonders of her Face; 137Sees by Degrees a purer Blush arise, 138And keener Lightnings quicken in her Eyes. 139 The busy Sylphs surround their darling Care; 140These set the Head, and those divide the Hair, 141Some fold the Sleeve, while others plait the Gown; 142 And Bettyn069 n069According to James Anderson Winn's "Queen Anne: Patroness of Arts", "Betty" had long served as a generic term for a maid. Winn, James Anderson. Queen Anne: Patroness of Arts. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.'s prais'd for Labours not her own.
[Engraving] 10 THE RAPE of the LOCK.
CANTO II. 1NOT with more Glories, in th' Etherialn070 n070"Of or relating to heaven, God, or the gods; heavenly, celestial." "ethereal, adj. and n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 30 November 2015. http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/64731Plain, 2The Sun first rises o'er the purpled Main, 3Than issuing forth, the Rivaln071 n071Belinda of his Beams 4 Lanch'd on the Bosom of the Silver Thames . 5 Fair Nymphsn072n072The other women traveling with her (not the nymphs who are the protectors of her chastity)., and well-drest Youths around her shone, 6But ev'ry Eye was fix'd on her alone. 7 On her white Breast a sparkling Cross she wore, 8 Which Jewsn073 n073Using the cross as a non-denominational decoration might refer to the breakdown of Catholic solidarity that these 'petty squabbles' might cause. (interpretive/thematic note) might kiss, and Infidels adore. 11 9Her lively Looks a sprightly Mind disclose, 10Quick as her Eyes, and as unfix'd as those: 11Favours to none, to all she Smiles extends, 12Oft she rejects, but never once offends. 13Bright as the Sun, her Eyes the Gazers strike, 14And, like the sun, they shine on all alike.n074 n074Her indifference is depicted as a virtue, in contrast to the later moment when "an Earthly Lover lurking in her heart" indicates that she's not as virtuous as this line indicated, and therefore loses her the protection of the spirits. (interpretive note) 15Yet graceful Ease, and Sweetness void of Pride, 16 Might hide her Faults, if Belles had faults to hide: 17If to her share some Female Errors fall, 18Look on her Face, and you'll forget 'em all. 19This Nymphn075n075Belinda, to the Destruction of Mankind, 20Nourish'd two Locks, which graceful hung behind 21In equal Curls, and well conspir'd to deck 22With shining Ringlets her smooth Iv'ryn076 n076Iv'ry speaks to expanding British Empire and the commodification of female beauty due to this expansion. (Interpretive note based on class discussions)Neck. 23Love in these Labyrinths hisn077 n077"his" is the personification of love Slaves detains, 24And mighty Hearts are held in slender Chains. 25With hairy Sprindgesn078 n078Variant of 'springe', "A snare for catching small game, esp. birds." "springe, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015. we the Birds betrayn079 n079The curls (e.i. women's beauty), which trap men are being paralleled with the traps men set to catch birds., 26 Slight Lines of Hair surprize the Finny Preyn080 n080Finny, adj, "Provided with or having fins; finned." The 'Finny Prey' refers to fish, which are also caught with a hair-like line, reiterating the comparison of beauty as a deadly trap. "finny, adj.1." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015., 12 27Fair Tressesn081 n081" a. A plait or braid of the hair of the head, usually of a woman. A long lock of hair (esp. that of a woman), without any sense of its being plaited or braided; mostly in pl. tresses." "tress, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 1 December 2015. Man's Imperial Racen082 n082Given that Anne was on the throne, this may speak to a masculine anxiety about man's position of power. "Queen Anne, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015. insnare, 28And Beauty draws us with a single Hair. 29 Th' Adventrous Baronn083 n083First time Baron is introduced the bright Locks admir'd, 30He saw, he wish'd, and to the Prize aspir'd: 31Resolv'd to win, he meditates the way, 32By Force to ravishn084 n084"Force to ravish" refers to the act of rape. However, in this context, it is not referring to overpowering Belinda's body, but rather stealing her lock of hair., or by Fraud betray; 33For when Successn085 n085The "Success" of a "Lover's Toil" in this era is marriage. a Lover's Toil attends, 34Few ask, if Fraud or Force attain'd his Ends. 35 For this, e're Phaebusn086 n086Variant spelling of Phoebus, a common name for Apollo, god of the sun. "Phoebus, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015. rose, he had implor'd 36Propitious Heav'n, and ev'ry Pow'r ador'd, 37 But chiefly Love ---to Love an Altar built, 38 Of twelve vast French Romances, neatly gilt. 39 There lay the Sword-knotn087 n087"n. a ribbon or tassel tied to the hilt of a sword (originating from the thong or lace with which the hilt was fastened to the wrist, but later used chiefly as a mere ornament or badge)." "sword-knot, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 1 December 2015. Sylvia 's Hands had sown, 40 With Flavia's Buskn088 n088"A strip of wood, whalebone, steel, or other rigid material attached vertically to the front section of a corset so as to stiffen and support it." "busk, n.3." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015. that oft had rapp'd his own: 41A Fan, a Garter, half a Pair of Gloves; 42And all the Trophies of his former Loves. 43 With tender Bilet-douxn089 n089"A love-letter. (Now usually jocular.)" "billet-doux, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 1 December 2015. he lights the Pyre, 44 And breaths three am'rous Sighs to raise the Fire. 13 45Then prostraten090 n090"Of a person: lying with the face to the ground, in token of submission or humility, as in adoration, worship, or supplication; (hence more generally) lying stretched out on the ground, typically with the face downwards. Freq. in predicative or quasi-adverbial use, as in to fall prostrate, to lie prostrate, etc." (OED) falls, and begs with ardent Eyes 46Soon to obtain, and long possess the Prizen091 n091"the Prize" refers to Belinda's lock of hair.: 47The Pow'rs gave Earn092 n092"gave Ear" means that they (ambiguous supernatural entities) listened to Baron., and granted half his Pray'r, 48The rest, the Winds dispers'd in empty Air. 49But now secure the painted Vesseln093 n093The "painted Vessel" refers to the boat gliding across the river Thames.glides, 50The Sun-beams trembling on the floating Tydes, 51While melting Musick steals upon the Sky, 52And soften'd Sounds along the Waters die. 53Smooth flow the Waves, the Zephyrsn094 n094"The west wind, esp. as personified, or the god of the west wind." "zephyr, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015. gently play 54 Belinda smil'd, and all the World was gay. 55 All but the Sylph ----With careful Thoughts opprest, 56Th' impending Woe sate heavy on his Breast. 57He summons strait his Denizensn095 n095The "Denizens of Air" refers to the other sylphs.of Air; 58The lucidn096 n096"Bright, shining, luminous, resplendent." (OED)Squadrons round the Sails repair: 59Soft o'er the Shrouds Aerial Whispers breath, 60 That seem'd but Zephyrs to the Train beneath. 61Some to the Sun their Insect-Wingsn097 n097Describing the sylphs unfold, 62 Waft on the Breeze, or sink in Clouds of Gold. 14 63Transparent Forms, too fine for mortal Sight, 64Their fluid Bodies half dissolv'd in Light. 65Loose to the Wind their airy Garments flew, 66Thin glitt'ring Textures of the filmy Dew; 67Dipt in the richest Tincturen098 n098"A colouring matter, dye, pigment; spec. a dye used as a cosmetic." "tincture, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.of the Skies, 68Where Light disports in ever-mingling Diesn099 n099Variant spelling of "dyes" "dye, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015., 69While ev'ry Beam new transient Colours flings, 70 Colours that change whene'er they wave their Wings. 71Amid the Circle, on the gilded Mast, 72 Superior by the Head, was Ariel plac'd; 73His Purple Pinionsn100 n100"A bird's wing; esp. (chiefly poet. and rhetorical) the wing of a bird in flight. Also: the terminal segment of a bird's wing, bearing the primary flight feathers." "pinion, n.2." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 1 December 2015.opening to the Sun, 74He rais'd his Azuren101 n101"paint, dye, or colour azure or bright blue." "ˈazure, v." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 1 December 2015. Wand, and thus begun. 75 Ye Sylphs and Sylphids , to your Chiefn102 n102Referring to Aerial.give Ear, 76 Fays, Fairies, Genii, Elvesn103 n103This is where Aerial begins speaking. , and Daemons hear! 77Ye know the Spheres and various Tasks assign'd, 78By Laws Eternal, to th' Aerial Kind. 79 Some in the Fields of purest AEther play, 80 And bask and whiten in the Blaze of Day. 15 81Some guide the Course of wandring Orbsn104 n104"The orbit of a planet or other celestial object; (also) the plane of the orbit." "orb, n.1." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 1 December 2015. on high, 82Or roll the Planets thro' the boundless Sky. 83Some less refin'd, beneath the Moon's pale Light 84Hover, and catch the shooting stars by Night; 85Or suck the Mists in grosser Air below, 86Or dip their Pinions in the painted Bown105 n105Rainbow, 87Or brew fierce Tempests on the wintry Main. 88Or on the Gleben106 n106"a. The soil of the earth, regarded as the source of vegetable products; earth, land. Now only poet. or rhet. b. A portion of land assigned to a clergyman as part of his benefice." "glebe, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 1 December 2015. distill the kindly Rain. 89Others on Earth o'er human Race preside, 90Watch all their Ways, and all their Actions guide: 91Of these the Chief the Care of Nationsn107 n107Referring to the most important of the sylphs. own, 92 And guard with Arms Divine the British Throne . 93Our humbler Province is to tend the Fairn108 n108In this case, the poem is referring to Belinda., 94Not a less pleasing, tho' less glorious Care. 95To save the Powdern109 n109Meaning to save her makeup (and beauty) from getting blown by the wind or other outside forces. from too rude a Gale, 96Nor let th' imprison'd Essences exhale, 97To draw fresh Colours from the vernaln110 n110"Of, pertaining or belonging to, the springtime; appropriate to the spring; spring-like: Of weather, scenery, etc." "vernal, adj. (and n.)." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 1 December 2015. Flow'rs, 98 To steal from Rainbows ere they drop in Show'rs 16 99A brighter Wash; to curl theirn111 n111This is referring to the "Fair"waving Hairs, 100Assist their Blushes, and inspire their Airs; 101Nay oft, in Dreams, Invention we bestow, 102 To change a Flouncen112 n112"‘An ornamental appendage to the skirt of a lady's dress, consisting of a strip gathered and sewed on by its upper edge around the skirt, and left hanging and waving.’ (Welsh)" "flounce, n.2." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015. , or add a Furbelon113 n113Variant spelling of 'Furbelow', "A piece of stuff pleated and puckered on a gown or petticoat; a flounce; the pleated border of a petticoat or gown." "furbelow, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.. 103This Day, black Omens threat the brightest Fairn114 n114Belinda 104That e'er deserv'd a watchful Spirit's Care; 105Some dire Disaster, or by Force, or Slight, 106But what, or where, the Fates have wraptn115 n115"Concealed, covered, hidden." "wrapped, adj." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 1 December 2015.in Night. 107 Whether the Nymph shall break Dianan116 n116"An ancient Roman female divinity, the moon-goddess, patroness of virginity and of hunting." "Diana, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 1 December 2015. 's Law, 108 Or some frail China Jar receive a Flaw, 109Or stain her Honour, or her new Brocaden117 n117"A textile fabric woven with a pattern of raised figures, originally in gold or silver." "brocade, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 1 December 2015., 110Forget her Pray'rs, or miss a Masqueraden118 n118Again placing spiritual matters on a par with earthly ones., 111Or lose her Heart, or Necklace, at a Ball; 112 Or whether Heav'n has doom'd that Shock must fall. 113Haste then ye Spirits! to your Charge repair; 114 The flutt'ring Fan be Zephyretta'an119 n119The nymphs' names are invented, each derived from a word related to the object entrusted to it. "Zephyretta", from 'Zephyr', has care of the breeze-producing fan. 's Care; 115 The Drops to thee, Brillanten120 n120"Brillante", from 'brilliant', is entrusted with the earrings. , we consign; 116 And Momentillan121 n121"Momentilla", from 'moment', has charge of the pocket-watch. , let the Watch be thine; 17 117 Do thou, Crispissan122 n122"Crispissa", from 'crisp', has charge of the two precise curls of hair. , tend her fav'rite Lock; 118 Ariel himself shall be the Guard of Shock . 119 To Fifty chosen Sylphs , of special Note, 120 We trust th' important Charge, the Petticoat : 121Oft have we known that sev'nfold Fence to fail; 122 Tho' stiff with Hoops, and arm'd with Ribs of Whalen123 n123"A strip of whalebone, esp. used as stiffening in women's stays, dresses, etc." "whalebone, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 1 December 2015.. 123Form a strong Line about the Silver Boundn124 n124"A strip of whalebone, esp. used as stiffening in women's stays, dresses, etc." "whalebone, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 1 December 2015., 124And guard the wide Circumference around. 125Whatever spirit, careless of his Charge, 126His Post neglects, or leaves the Fair at large, 127Shall feel sharp Vengeance soon o'ertake his Sins, 128 Be stoptn125 n125"Said of the obstruction: To block, choke up." "stop, v." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 1 December 2015. in Vialsn126 n126"A vessel of a small or moderate size used for holding liquids; in later use spec., a small glass bottle" "vial, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 1 December 2015. , or transfixt with Pins ; 129 Or plung'd in Lakes of bitter Washes lie, 130 Or wedg'd whole Ages in a Bodkin'sn127 n127Bodkin, n. "A needle-like instrument with a blunt knobbed point, having a large (as well as a small) eye, for drawing tape or cord through a hem, loops, etc." "bodkin, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015. Eye: 131 Gums and Pomatumsn128 n128"An ointment for the skin or hair; = pomade" "pomatum, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015. shall his Flight restrain, 132While clog'd he beats his silken Wings in vain; 133 Or Alom- Stypticksn129 n129A 'styptic' is a kind of medicine used to contract organic tissue (for example, to stop a cut bleeding), frequently made out of 'alum', a type of mineral salt. "styptic, adj. and n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015. http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/192368 "alum, n.1." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015. http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/5869 with contracting Power 134 Shrink his thin Essence like a rivell'd Flower. 18 135 Or as Ixionn130 n130"Ixion, in Greek legend, murdered his father-in-law and could find no one to purify him until Zeus did so. Ixion abused his pardon by trying to seduce Zeus’s wife, Hera. Zeus, to punish him, bound him on a fiery wheel, which rolled unceasingly through the air or, according to the more common tradition, in the underworld." "Ixion | Greek Mythology." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. Nov. 2015. fix'd, the Wretch shall feel 136The giddy Motion of the whirling Milln131 n131Compares being trapped in the grinder of a coffee mill to the mythological figure Ixion, who was fixed to a fire wheel spinning in the air of the underworld forever. 137Midst Fumes of burning Chocolate shall glow, 138And tremble at the Sean132 n132This is referring to the hot coffee in the grinder/pot.that froaths below! 139Hen133 n133Aerialspoke; the Spirits from the Sails descend; 140Some, Orb in Orb, around the Nymphn134 n134Belindaextend, 141Some thridn135 the mazy Ringlets of her Hair, 142Some hang upon the Pendants of her Ear; 143With beating Hearts the dire Eventn135 n135This "event" is the Baron executing his plan to obtain her hair.they wait, 144Anxious, and trembling for the Birth of Fate.
[Engraving] 19 THE RAPE of the LOCK.
CANTO III. 1 CLOSE by those Meadsn136 n136Mead is a poetic term for meadow. "mead, n.2." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 1 December 2015.for ever crown'd with Flow'rs, 2 Where Thames with Pride surveys his rising Tow'rs, 3There stands a Structure of Majestick Frame, 4 Which from the neighb'ring Hamptonn137 n137The Norton Anthology, 9th edition, states that Pope alludes to "Hampton Court, the royal palace, about fifteen miles up the Thames from London.” Pope, Alexander. “The Rape of the Lock.” The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Gen. ed. Stephen Greenblatt. 9th ed. Vol. C. New York: Norton, 2012. 2694. Print. takes its Name. 5 Here Britain 's Statesmen oft the Fall foredoom 6Of Foreign Tyrants, and of Nymphs at home; 7 Here Thou, great Annan138 n138Queen Anne, a Stuart monarch who reigned over Great Britain and Ireland from 1702-1714. "Anne". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2015. Web. 01 Dec. 2015 http://www.britannica.com/biography/Anne-queen-of-Great-Britain-and-Ireland.! whom three Realms obey, 8 Dost sometimes Counsel take--and sometimes Tea . 20 9Hither the Heroes and the Nymphs resort, 10To taste awhile the Pleasures of a Court; 11In various Talk th' instructive hours they past, 12 Who gave a Ball , or paid the Visit last: 13 One speaks the Glory of the British Queen , 14 And one describes a charming Indian Screen ; 15A third interprets Motions, Looks, and Eyes; 16At ev'ry Word a Reputation dies. 17 Snuff , or the Fan , supply each Pause of Chat, 18With singing, laughing, ogling, and all that. 19Mean while declining from the Noon of Day, 20The Sun obliquely shoots his burning Ray; 21The hungry Judges soon the Sentence sign, 22And Wretches hang that Jury-men may Dine; 23 The Merchant from th' Exchange returns in Peace, 24 And the long Labours of the Toilette cease ---- 25 Belinda now, whom Thirst of Fame invites, 26 Burns to encounter two adventrous Knights, 21 27 At Ombren139 n139Ombre was a popular three-player card game similar to modern Bridge. Each game can have nine rounds (“tricks”). The most straightforward way to win is by taking five tricks (drawing the highest-ranked card in each round), after which the game ends. The game begins with an auction to decide the trump suit. The highest-bidding player is the “ombre” (from the Spanish “hombre”), and the other two play against her while trying to ensure their individual successes. The penalty enacted on each of the two non-ombres is greater if the ombre wins than if the other non-ombre wins. Similarly, the ombre will lose more if either of the two gains five tricks than if no one has won five at the end of nine rounds. Gibbs, Alban George Henry. The Game of Ombre. London: privately printed, 1874, 3rd edition (expanded) 1902. Print. singly to decide their Doom; 28And swells her Breast with Conquests yet to come. 29Strait the three Bands prepare in Arms to join, 30Each Band the number of the Sacred Nine. 31Soon as she spreads her Hand, th' Aerial Guard 32Descend, and fit on each important Card, 33 First Ariel perch'd upon a Matadoren140 n141The matadores (spadillio, manillio, and basto) are the three highest-ranking cards in the trump suit. Belinda controls all three. Gibbs, Alban George Henry. The Game of Ombre. London: privately printed, 1874, 3rd edition (expanded) 1902. Print. , 34Then each, according to the Rank they bore; 35 For Sylphs , yet mindful of their ancient Race, 36Are, as when Women, wondrous fond of place. 37 Behold, four Kings in Majesty rever'd, 38With hoary Whiskers and a forky Beard; 39 And four fair Queens whose hands sustain a Flow'r, 40Th' expressive Emblem of their softer Pow'r; 41 Four Knaves in Garbs succinct, a trusty Band, 42Caps on their heads, and Halberds in their hand; 43And Particolour'd Troops, a shining Train, 44Draw forth to Combat on the Velvet Plainn142 n142This is not a description of Belinda’s hand of cards, but rather imagines the illustrations in the deck marching into battle on the "velvet plain" of the card table.. 22 45The skilful Nymph reviews her Forcen143 n143For reference, Belinda’s starting hand is made up of spadillio, manillio, basto, the king of spades, the king and queen of hearts, and the 5 and 4 of diamonds. The Baron begins the game with the king of clubs, the jack, 7, 5, and 3 of spades (the trump suit), the king, queen, and jack of diamonds, and the ace of hearts. Belinda and the Baron both have extremely strong hands, while the third character has no strong cards. Gibbs, Alban George Henry. The Game of Ombre. London: privately printed, 1874, 3rd edition (expanded) 1902. Print.with Care; 46 Let Spades be Trumpsn144 n144Belinda chooses the trump suit (which would be decided by an auction––I.e., whoever bet the most on that game). Gibbs, Alban George Henry. The Game of Ombre. London: privately printed, 1874, 3rd edition (expanded) 1902. Print. , she said, and Trumps they were. 47 Now move to War her Sable matadores , 48 In Show like Leaders of the swarthy Moors . 49 Spadillio first, unconquerable Lord! 50Led off two captive Trumps, and swept the Board 51 As many more Manillio forc'd to yield, 52And march'd a Victor from the verdant Field. 53 Him Basto follow'd, but his Fate more hard 54 Gain'd but one Trump and one Plebeian Card. 55With his broad Sabre next, a Chief in Years, 56 The hoary Majesty of Spades appears; 57Puts forth one manly Leg, to fight reveal'd; 58The rest his many-colour'd Robe conceal'd. 59 The Rebel- Knave , that dares his Prince engage, 60Proves the just Victim of his Royal Rage. 61 Ev'n mighty Pam that Kings and Queens o'erthrow, 62 And mow'd down Armies in the Fights of Lu , 63And Chance of War! now, destitute of Aid, 64 Falls undistinguish'd by the Victor Spade n145These lines describe Belinda’s taking the first four tricks of the game with her four strongest cards. (Players discard the played cards and replace each with one drawn randomly from the stock pile.) Gibbs, Alban George Henry. The Game of Ombre. London: privately printed, 1874, 3rd edition (expanded) 1902. Print. ! 23 65 Thus far both Armies to Belinda yield; 66 Now to the Baronn146 n146In the following stanzas, the Baron begins to threaten Belinda’s winning streak. He wins tricks five through eight, tying their scores. Fate inclines the Field. 67 His warlike Amazon her Host invades, 68 Th' Imperial Consort of the Crown of Spades . 69 The Club's black Tyrant first her Victim dy'd, 70Spite of his haughty Mien, and barb'rous Pride: 71What boots the Regal Circle on his Head, 72His Giant Limbs in State unwiedly spread? 73That long behind he trails his pompous Robe, 74And of all Monarchs only grasps the Globen147 n147Pope refers to the card's illustration. Pope, Alexander. “The Rape of the Lock.” The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Gen. ed. Stephen Greenblatt. 9th ed. Vol. C. New York: Norton, 2012. 2694. Print.? 75 The Baron now his Diamonds pours apace; 76 Th' embroider'd King who shows but half his Face, 77 And his refulgent Queen , with Pow'rs combin'd, 78Of broken Troops an easie Conquest find. 79 Clubs, Diamonds, Hearts , in wild Disorder seen, 80With Throngs promiscuous strow the level Green. 81Thus when dispers'd a routed Army runs, 82 Of Asia 's Troops, and Africk 's Sable Sons, 24 83With like Confusion different Nations fly, 84In various habits and of various Dye, 85The pierc'd Battalions dis-united fall, 86In Heaps on Heaps; one Fate o'erwhelms them all. 87 The Knave of Diamonds now exerts his Arts, 88 And wins (oh shameful Chance!) the Queen of Hearts . 89At this, the Blood the Virgin's Cheek forsook, 90A livid Paleness spreads o'er all her Look; 91She sees, and trembles at th' approaching Ill, 92 Just in the Jaws of Ruin, and Codille n148Codille denotes losing the game and the penalty that comes with it. Belinda must either win trick 9, or hope that the third, useless player does, in order to avoid a loss. Gibbs, Alban George Henry. The Game of Ombre. London: privately printed, 1874, 3rd edition (expanded) 1902. Print. . 93And now, (as oft in some distemper'd State) 94 On one nice Trickn148 n149A trick is a round. As explained above, a game consists of nine tricks; whoever takes five wins the game. These lines describe Belinda’s taking the first four tricks of the game with her four strongest cards. (Players discard the played cards and replace each with one drawn randomly from the stock pile.) Gibbs, Alban George Henry. The Game of Ombre. London: privately printed, 1874, 3rd edition (expanded) 1902. Print. depends the gen'ral Fate, 95 Lurk'd in her Hand, and mourn'd his captive Queenn150 n150The ace is the Baron’s card, which is inferior to Belinda’s king of hearts, although neither is aware of this until the cards are played. These lines describe Belinda’s taking the first four tricks of the game with her four strongest cards. (Players discard the played cards and replace each with one drawn randomly from the stock pile.) Gibbs, Alban George Henry. The Game of Ombre. London: privately printed, 1874, 3rd edition (expanded) 1902. Print. . 96He springs to Vengeance with an eager pace, 97 And falls like Thunder on the prostrate Ace. 98The Nymph exulting fills with Shouts the Sky, 99The Walls, the Woods, and long Canals reply. 25 100Oh thoughtless Mortals! ever blind to Fate, 101Too soon dejected, and too soon elate! 102Sudden these Honours shall be snatch'd away, 103And curs'd for ever this Victorious Day. 104For lo! the Board with Cups and Spoonsn151 n151For coffeeis crown'd, 105The Berriesn152 n152Coffee beanscrackle, and the Milln153 n153Coffee grinderturns round. 106 On shining Altars of Japann154 n154Japan: "work varnished and raised in gold and colours" according to Johnson's dictionary Johnson, Samuel. "Japan (noun)." Japan (noun). A Dictionary of the English Language: A Digital Edition of the 1755 Classic by Samuel Johnson. Web. 30 Nov. 2015. they raise 107The silver Lamp, and fiery Spirits blaze. 108From silver Spouts the grateful Liquors glide, 109 And China 's Earth receives the smoking Tyde. 110At once they gratify their Scent and Taste, 111While frequent Cups prolong the rich Repast. 112Strait hover round the Fair her Airy Band; 113Some, as she sip'd, the fuming Liquor fann'd, 114Some o'er her Lap their careful Plumes display'd, 115Trembling, and conscious of the rich Brocade. 116 Coffee , (which makes the Politician wife, 117 And see thro' all things with his half shut Eyes) 26 118 Sent up in Vapours to the Baron 's Brain 119New Stratagems, the radiant Lock to gain. 120Ah cease rash Youth! desist e'er 'tis too late, 121 Fear the just Gods, and think of Scyllan155 n155Nisus, king of Megara, was at war against Crete, but it was decreed by fate that his kingdom would be safe as long as a purple lock of hair remained on his head. His daughter Scylla fell in love with the king of Crete, Minos, and cut off her father's purple lock to give to him. Minos rejected the gift, and both Nisus and Scylla turned into birds. 's Fate! 122Chang'd to a Bird, and sent to flit in Air, 123 She dearly pays for Nisus' injur'd Hair! 124But when to Mischief Mortals bend their Mind, 125How soon fit Instruments of Ill they find? 126 Just then, Clarissa drew with tempting Grace 127A two-edg'd Weapon from her shining Case; 128So Ladies in Romance assist their Knight, 129Present the Spear, and arm him for the Fight. 130He takes the Gift with rev'rence, and extends 131The little Engine on his Finger's Ends, 132 This just behind Belinda 's Neck he spread, 133As o'er the fragrant Steams she bends her Headn156 n156It is interesting that Belinda becomes vulnerable to the Baron's attack when sniffing coffee fumes, because many women in the late 17th century objected to their husbands drinking coffee. Some of them helped create the Women’s Petition Against Coffee in 1674. "London's Coffee Houses." London's Coffee Houses. Http://www.history.co.uk/, 21 June 2014. Web. 30 Nov. 2015.: 134Swift to the Lock a thousand Sprights repair, 135 A thousand Wings, by turns, blow back the Hair, 27 136And thrice they twitch'd the Diamond in her Ear, 137 Thrice she look'd back, and thrice the Foe drew near. 138 Just in that instant, anxious Ariel sought 139The close Recesses of the Virgin's Thought; 140As on the Nosegayn157 n157Small flower bouquetin her Breast reclin'd, 141He watch'd th' Ideas rising in her Mind, 142Sudden he view'd, in spite of all her Art, 143An Earthly Lover lurking at her Heart. 144Amaz'd, confus'd, he found his Pow'r expir'd, 145Resign'd to Fate, and with a Sigh retir'd. 146 The Peer now spreads the glitt'ring Forfexn158 n158Latin for scissors wide, 147T'inclose the Lock; now joins it, to divide. 148Ev'n then, before the fatal Engine clos'd, 149 A wretched Sylph too fondly interpos'd; 150 Fate urg'd the Sheers, and cut the Sylph in twain, 151(*But Airy Substance soon unites again)n159 n159A reference to John Milton's Paradise Lost, in which Satan is injured in the war in heaven when a sword "Passed through him, but th' Ethereal substance closed/ Not long divisible" (Paradise Lost 6.326-31). Lynch, Jack. "The Rape of the Lock, Edited by Jack Lynch." Pope, Rape of the Lock. Rutgers University. Web. 30 Nov. 2015. 152The meeting Points that sacred Hair dissever 153 From the fair Head, for ever and for ever! 28 154Then flash'd the living Lightnings from her Eyes, 155And Screams of Horror rend th' affrighted Skies. 156Not louder Shrieks by Dames to Heav'n are cast, 157When Husbands or when Monkeysn160 n160In 18th-century England, the wealthy kept many kinds of pets, including monkeys. The lower classes sometimes kept performing monkeys, which could earn them extra money. Olsen, Kirstin. *Daily Life in 18th-century England. *Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1999. Google Books. Google. Web. 30 Nov. 2015.breath their last, 158 Or when rich China Vessels, fal'n from high, 159In glittring Dust and painted Fragments lie! 160Let Wreaths of Triumphn161 n161In ancient Greece, laurel wreaths were worn as a symbol of victory or honor.now my Temples twine, 161(The Victor cry'd) the glorious Prize is mine! 162While Fish in Streams, or Birds delight in Air, 163 Or in a Coach and Six the British Fair, 164 As long as Atalantisn162 n162Secret Memoirs and Manners of Several Persons of Quality, of Both Sexes, from the New Atalantis, an Island in the Mediterranean, published in 1709, was a scandalous book by Delarivier Manley. With its salacious details of politicians' private lives, the story satirizes the corruption of the aristocracy Conway, Alison Margaret. *Private Interests: Women, Portraiture, and the Visual Culture of the English Novel, 1709-1791. *Toronto: U of Toronto, 2001. Google Books. Google. Web. 30 Nov. 2015. shall be read, 165Or the small Pillow grace a Lady's Bed, 166 While Visits shall be paid on solemn Daysn163 n163Probably refers to certain religious holidays taking place during Lent and Advent, periods of time in which Bishops were obligated to take special care of their parishes Phillimore, Robert. The Ecclesiastical Law of the Church of England. Vol. 1. London: H. Sweet, 1873. Google Books. Google. Web. 30 Nov. 2015., 167When numerous Wax-lights in bright Order blaze, 168While Nymphs take Treats, or Assignations give, 169So long my Honour, Name, and Praise shall live! 170 What Time wou'd spare, from Steel receives its date, 171 And Monuments, like Men, submit to Fate! 29 172Steel did the Labour of the Gods destroy, 173 And strike to Dust th' Imperial Tow'rs of Troy ; 174Steel cou'd the Works of mortal Pride confound, 175And hew Triumphal Arches to the Ground. 176 What Wonder then, fair Nymph! thy Hairs shou'd feel 177The conqu'ring Force of unresisted Steel?
[Engraving] 30 THE RAPE of the LOCK.
CANTO IV. 1BUT anxious Cares the pensive Nymph opprest, 2And secret Passions labour'd in her Breast. 3Not youthful Kings in Battel seiz'd alive, 4Not scornful Virgins who their Charms survive, 5Not ardent Lovers robb'd of all their Bliss, 6Not ancient Ladies when refus'd a Kiss, 7Not Tyrants fierce that unrepenting die, 8 Notn164 n164The literary devices of anaphora and juxtaposition are employed here in order to heighten the essentially farcical nature of this passage, for the triviality of Belinda's preoccupation is merely accentuated when the loss of her beloved lock is compared to the various unhappy instances of the vicissitudes of life adduced in this passage. Cynthia when her Manteau 's pinn'd awry, 31 9E'er felt such Rage, Resentment and Despair, 10As Thou, sad Virgin! for thy ravish'd Hair. 11 For, that sad moment, when the Sylphs withdrew, 12 And Ariel weeping from Belinda flew, 13 Umbriel , a dusky melancholy Spright, 14As ever fully'd the fair face of Light, 15Down to the Central Earth, his proper Scene, 16 Repairs to search the gloomy Cave of Spleenn165 n165An organ which was supposed to cause melancholy, irascibility, spite, ill humor, etc. Hysteria (or hypochondriac vapours) in women was attributed to the spleen. Pope, Alexander. "The Rape of the Lock." Eighteenth-Century Resources. Ed. Jack Lynch. Rutgers University. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. https://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/rapelock.html. Blackmore, Richard. A Treatise of the Spleen and Vapours: Or, Hypocondriacal and Hysterical Affections. London: Doddington, 1725. Print. Umbriel's journey through the Cave of Spleen is analogous to the journeys, fraught with many perils, which Aeneas (Vergil's The Aeneid) and Odysseus (Homer's The Odyssey) made through the underworld . 17 Swift on his sooty Pinions flitts the Gnome , 18And in a Vapour reach'd the dismal Domen166 n166In other words, a building. Pope, Alexander. "The Rape of the Lock." Eighteenth-Century Resources. Ed. Jack Lynch. Rutgers University. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. https://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/rapelock.html.. 19No cheerful Breeze this sullen Region knows, 20 The dreaded East is all the Wind that blows. 21Here, in a Grotto, sheltred close from Air, 22And screen'd in Shades from Day's detested Glare, 23She sighs for ever on her pensive Bed, 24 Pain at her side, and Languor at her Head. 25Two Handmaids wait the Throne: Alike in Place, 26 But diff'ring far in Figure and in Face. 32 27 Here stood Ill-nature like an ancient Maid, 28 Her wrinkled Form in Black and White array'd; 29 With store of Pray'rs, for Mornings, Nights, and Noons, 30Her Hand is fill'd; her Bosom with Lampoonsn167 n167"Lampooning" in 17th and 18th century England was a scathing form of satire that attacked a specific person's appearance. It originates from the French word "lampons," which means "let's drink," and Alexander Pope himself lampooned a fellow writer, Joseph Addison, in his work "An Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot." The form fell into disuse soon after this time but the term "lampoon" still refers to an insult directed at a specific person or institution. Werlock, Abby H. P. The Facts on File Companion to the American Short Story. 2nd ed. New York NY: Facts On File, 2010. Print.. 31 There Affectation with a sickly Mien 32Shows in her Cheek the Roses of Eighteen, 33Practis'd to Lisp, and hang the Head aside, 34Faints into Airs, and languishes with Pride; 35On the rich Quilt sinks with becoming Woe, 36Wrapt in a Gown, for Sickness, and for Show. 37The Fair ones feel such Maladies as these, 38When each new Night-Dress gives a new Disease. 39 A constant Vapour o'er the Palace flies; 40Strange Phantoms rising as the Mists arise; 41Dreadful, as Hermit's Dreams in haunted Shades, 42Or bright as Visions of expiring Maids. 43Now glaring Fiends, and Snakes on rolling Spiresn168 n168"rolling Spires"=spirals Cummings, Michael. "The Rape of the Lock." Cummings Study Guides. Michael J. Cummings, 2005. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. http://www.cummingsstudyguides.net/Guides2/Pope.html., 44 Pale Spectres, gaping Tombs, and Purple Fires: 33 45 Now Lakes of liquid Gold, Elysiann169 n169A reference to Elysium/Elysian Fields/Elysian Plain, where mortals favored by the gods for their rectitude were sent to dwell after they had departed from the land of the living. Elysium was originally the exclusive province of the heroes who had acquired immortality from the gods by virtue of their intrepidity. Elysian in the context of this passage means "like paradise." "Elysium." Myths Encyclopedia. Advameg, Inc. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. http://www.mythencyclopedia.com/Dr-Fi/Elysium.html. Pope, Alexander. "The Rape of the Lock." Eighteenth-Century Resources. Ed. Jack Lynch. Rutgers University. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. https://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/rapelock.html. Scenes, 46And Crystal Domes, and Angels in Machines. 47Unnumber'd Throngs on ev'ry side are seen 48 Of Bodies chang'd to various Forms by Spleen . 49 Here living Teapots stand, one Arm held out, 50One bent; the Handle this, and that the Spout: 51 A Pipkinn170 n170According to Johnson..."A small earthen boiler." Pope, Alexander. "The Rape of the Lock." Eighteenth-Century Resources. Ed. Jack Lynch. Rutgers University. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. https://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/rapelock.html.there like Homer 's Tripodn171 n171A reference to the automatons (or "tripods"), twenty in all, fashioned with rivets and gold wheels by the lame god Vulcan in his workshop so that they might be dispatched whenever the gods congregated at Mt. Olympus, returning to the workshop afterwards to be at the beck and call of the god. From Book XVIII of Homer's The Iliad. Pope, Alexander. "The Rape of the Lock." Eighteenth-Century Resources. Ed. Jack Lynch. Rutgers University. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. https://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/rapelock.html. Homer. The Iliad. Trans. Richmond Lattimore. Chicago: U of Chicago, 1951. Print. walks; 52Here sighs a Jar, and there a Goose-pyen172 n172Goose-pie. Below is a note which Pope made: "Alludes to a real fact, a Lady of distinction imagin'd herself in this condition." "Here living Teapots stand....call aloud for Corks." Apparently Pope was inspired in this conceit (itself a reference to the perceived hallucinogenic properties of the nervous disorders associated with the spleen) by The Metamorphoses by Ovid (translated by Dryden), the depiction of melancholia (then attributed to a splenetic temperament) in The Spleen (1709) by Anne Finch, Countess of Winchilsea (1661-1720), and various medical histories documenting the fanciful afflictions from which "people of quality" suffered. Deutsch, Helen. Resemblance & Disgrace: Alexander Pope and the Deformation of Culture. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1996. Print. "Anne Finch, Countess of Winchilsea." Poetry Foundation. Poetry Foundation. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. http://www.poetryfoundation.org/bio/anne-finch. Pope, Alexander. "The Rape of the Lock." Eighteenth-Century Resources. Ed. Jack Lynch. Rutgers University. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. https://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/rapelock.html.talks; 53Men prove with Child, as pow'rful Fancy works, 54And Maids turn'd Bottels, call aloud for Corks. 55 Safe past the Gnome thro' this fantastick Band, 56 A Branchn174 n174A parodic reference to the golden bough bore by Aeneas during his journey, accompanied by the Cumaean Sibyl, through the underworld. Aeneas, having been guided by a pair of doves to a place in a forest where the golden bough had been long obscured from the sight of man, had plucked the golden bough in order to obtain safe passage through the underworld. He and the Sibyl were only ferried to the underworld across the Acheron River once hoary Charon, the ferryman, saw that Aeneas had miraculously obtained the elusive golden bough. Pope, Alexander. "The Rape of the Lock." Eighteenth-Century Resources. Ed. Jack Lynch. Rutgers University. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. https://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/rapelock.html. "Golden Bough." Myths Encyclopedia. Advameg, Inc. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. http://www.mythencyclopedia.com/Fi-Go/Golden-Bough.html.of healing Spleenwort in his hand. 57Then thus addrest the Pow'r--Hail wayward Queen; 58Who rule the Sex to Fifty from Fifteen, 59Parent of Vapors and of Female Wit, 60 Who give th' Hysteric or Poetic Fit, 61On various Tempers act by various ways, 62 Make some take Physick, others scribble Plays; 34 63Who cause the Proud their Visits to delay, 64And send the Godly in a Pettn175 n175According to Johnson, "A slight passion; a slight fit of anger." Pope, Alexander. "The Rape of the Lock." Eighteenth-Century Resources. Ed. Jack Lynch. Rutgers University. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. https://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/rapelock.html., to pray. 65A Nymph there is, that all thy Pow'r disdains, 66And thousands more in equal Mirth maintains. 67 But oh! if e'er thy Gnome could spoil a Grace, 68Or raise a Pimple on a beauteous Face, 69Like Citron-Watersn176 n176A citrus-based brandy. In this case, lemon and citron rinds have been used to distill the brandy. Pope, Alexander. "The Rape of the Lock." Eighteenth-Century Resources. Ed. Jack Lynch. Rutgers University. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. https://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/rapelock.html. Cummings, Michael. "The Rape of the Lock." Cummings Study Guides. Michael J. Cummings, 2005. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. http://www.cummingsstudyguides.net/Guides2/Pope.html.Matron's Cheeks inflame, 70Or change Complexions at a losing Game; 71If e'er with airy Hornsn177 n177The quintessential symbol of a cuckold. Pope, Alexander. "The Rape of the Lock." Eighteenth-Century Resources. Ed. Jack Lynch. Rutgers University. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. https://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/rapelock.html.I planted Heads, 72Or rumpled Petticoats, or tumbled Beds, 73Or caus'd Suspicion when no Soul was rude, 74Or discompos'd the Head-dress of a Prude, 75Or e'er to costiven178 n178In other words, constipated. Pope, Alexander. "The Rape of the Lock." Eighteenth-Century Resources. Ed. Jack Lynch. Rutgers University. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. https://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/rapelock.html.Lap-Dog gave Disease, 76Which not the Tears of brightest Eyes could ease: 77 Hear me, and touch Belinda with Chagrin; 78That single Act gives half the World the Spleen. 79The Goddess with a discontented Air 80 Seems to reject him, tho' she grants his Pray'r. 35 81A wondrous Bag with both her Hands she binds, 82 Like that where once Ulyssesn179 n179A reference to Book X of Homer's The Odyssey in which Odysseus receives a bag of winds from Aeolus after having been hospitably entertained by him for at least a month at his palace at the Island of Aeolia. Aeolus had been given command of the Anemoi by the gods, and so he hoped to lay the winds, especially Zephyrus (the west wind), at Odysseus's disposal so that he might be able to reach Ithaca at last. However, Odysseus's men thought that the bag contained silver and gold, and so their greed induced them to open the sack and thus release the winds in all of their tumult. Thus Odysseus, who had fallen asleep at the rudder with Ithaca within sight, and his crew were driven right back to the Island of Aeolia. Pope, Alexander. "The Rape of the Lock." Eighteenth-Century Resources. Ed. Jack Lynch. Rutgers University. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. https://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/rapelock.html. Homer. The Odyssey of Homer. Trans. Richmond Lattimore. New York: Harper & Row, 1967. Print. held the Winds; 83There she collects the Force of Female Lungs, 84Sighs, Sobs, and Passions, and the War of Tongues. 85A Vial next she fills with fainting Fears, 86Soft Sorrows, melting Griefs, and flowing Tears. 87 The Gnome rejoicing bears her Gift away, 88Spreads his black Wings, and flowly mounts to Day. 89 Sunk in Thalestris'n180 n180330 BC: The name of a mythological Amazonian queen who, accompanied by 300 warriors, supposedly sought out Alexander the Great, who was then in Hyrcania, a satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire (which he was bent on subjugating), in order to sleep with him so that she might bear his child. Alexander consented and gave his men a thirteen-day furlough so that he might attempt to impregnate Thalestris. Eventually Thalestris believed that she had conceived, and so Alexander and his men departed for Parthia. The realm of Thalestris encompassed the area between the River Phasis and the Caucasus. Lendering, Jona. "Hyrcania." Livius. Livius.org, 1996. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. http://www.livius.org/articles/place/hyrcania/ Marcus. "Thalestris, the Amazon Queen." Pothos.org. Pothos.org. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. http://www.pothos.org/content/index.php?page=thalestris-the-amazon-queen. Pope, Alexander. "The Rape of the Lock." Eighteenth-Century Resources. Ed. Jack Lynch. Rutgers University. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. https://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/rapelock.html. Arms the Nymph he found, 90Her Eyes dejected and her Hair unbound. 91Full o'er their Heads the swelling Bag he rent, 92And all the Furiesn181 n181A reference to the three chthonic goddesses-Alecto (endless), Megaera (jealous rage), and Tisiphone (punishment)-who were the scourges of murderers, especially those who had killed their kith and kin. They relentlessly pursued the casualties of their wrath with insanity and other forms of torture (carried out with instruments such as whips, torches, and cups of venom) in their quest to uphold justice. A trio of loathsome hags with skin the color of coal, the wings of bats, and snakes in their hair. Known as the Erinyes. "Furies." Myths Encyclopedia. Advameg, Inc. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. http://www.mythencyclopedia.com/Fi-Go/Furies.html.issued at the Vent. 93 Belinda burns with more than mortal Iren182 n182A term for intense anger, in this case related to Belinda's anger related to the severing of the lock of her hair which she reacts to as if it is a mortal sin or a action motivated by wrath. "Ire." - Memidex Dictionary/thesaurus. 23 June 2013. Web. 7 Dec. 2015. ., 94 And fierce Thalestris fans the rising Fire. 95O wretched Maid! she spread her hands, and cry'd, 96 (While Hampton 's Ecchosn183 n183This refers to the overall emptiness of Hampton Court, a palace in London at which Henry VIII lived during his reign. Because it is so empty and cold inside, it not only literally echoes Belinda's words but also echoes the pain and emptiness she feels inside. King, Christa Knellwolf. A Contradiction Still: Representations of Women in the Poetry of Alexander Pope. Manchester, UK: Manchester UP :, 1998. Print., wretched Maid reply'd) 97Was it for this you took such constant Care 98 The Bodkin, Comb , and Essence to prepare; 36 99For this your Locks in Paper-Durancea184 n184Papers commonly used to curl a woman's hair that were fastened to her head with heated lead. Black, Joseph Laurence. The Broadview Anthology of British Literature. 2nd ed. Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview, 2011. Print.bound, 100For this with tort'ring Irons wreath'd around? 101For this with Filletsn185 n185A thin crown that circled a lady's head to assist in the process of curling her hair. Black, Joseph Laurence. The Broadview Anthology of British Literature. 2nd ed. Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview, 2011. Print.strain'd your tender Head, 102And bravely bore the double Loads of Leadn186 n186Likely referring to the heated lead used with the paper durance used to curl women's hair in 18th century England. Black, Joseph Laurence. The Broadview Anthology of British Literature. 2nd ed. Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview, 2011. Print.? 103Gods! shall the Ravisher display your Hair, 104While the Fopsn187 n187A "fop" in this context refers to a man overly concerned with his outer appearance to the point that it bothers other people. It originated in this context in 17th century England to refer to a generally foolish, effeminate man incapable of engaging in intellectual conversation. In this line, the definition of a "fop" is exemplified by the fact that they and ladies are both jealous of Belinda's hair. "Definition of Fop." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 5 Nov. 2015. Web. 13 Nov. 2015. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fop.envy, and the Ladies stare! 105 Honour forbid! at whose unrival'd Shrine 106Ease, Pleasure, Virtue, All, our Sex resign. 107Methinks already I your Tears survey, 108Already hear the horrid things they say, 109Already see you a degraded Toastn188 n188The term "toast" originated as a term for a lady for whose health a group of people dedicated a drink, similar to how people propose toasts today. This lady's name was seen as adding a special flavor to the drink in question, similar in function to a spiced toast that would have been a common feature in alcoholic drinks at the time. "Toast." Toast: Definition of Toast in Oxford Dictionary (American English) (US). Web. 13 Nov. 2015. http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/toast., 110And all your Honour in a Whisper lost! 111How shall I, then, your helpless Fame defend? 112'Twill then be Infamy to seem your Friend! 113And shall this Prize, th' inestimable Prize, 114Expos'd thro' Crystal to the gazing Eyes, 115And heighten'd by the Diamond's circling Rays, 116On that Rapacious Hand for ever blaze? 117 Sooner shall Grass in Hide -Park Circusn189 n189Another word for Ring Road in London's Hyde Park. A "circus" in this context also refers to a roundabout on a London road. "West End of London." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 11 Nov. 2015. Web. 5 Nov. 2015. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_End_of_London. Black, Joseph Laurence. The Broadview Anthology of British Literature. 2nd ed. Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview ;, 2011. Print. grow, 118 And Wits take Lodgings in the Sound of Bown190 n190A reference to the Bow Bells of St Mary-le-Bow, a church which was located in the Cheapside district of London. Apparently this location was regarded as unfashionable. Power, Matthew. "Bow Bells." St Mary-le-Bow Church. St Mary-le-Bow. Web. 3 Dec. 2015. http://www.stmarylebow.co.uk/#/bow-bells/4535373284. Pope, Alexander. "The Rape of the Lock." Eighteenth-Century Resources. Ed. Jack Lynch. Rutgers University. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. https://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/rapelock.html. ; 37 119 Sooner let Earth, Air, Sea, to Chaos fall, 120Men, Monkies, Lap-dogs, Parrots, perish all! 121 She said; then raging to Sir Plume repairs, 122 And bids her Beau demand the precious Hairs: 123 ( Sir Plume , of Amber Snuff-boxn191 n191High society gentlemen of this time generally stored their "snuff," or sniffing tobacco, in jeweled "snuff boxes" made from precious materials such as porcelain, ebony, and the afore-mentioned amber. These snuff boxes played a large role in defining their gentlemenly statuses to the rest of the world, so a man of Sir Plume's societal stature would be understandably vain about having an amber snuff box. English Illustrated Magazine 1903. Print. justly vain, 124 And the nice Conduct of a clouded Canen192 n192A thin walking stick (especially if crafted from agates and marbles) which was often luxuriously adorned with precious stones, silver, gold, or amber, and was colored or semi-opaquely tinted. Pope, Alexander. "The Rape of the Lock." Eighteenth-Century Resources. Ed. Jack Lynch. Rutgers University. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. https://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/rapelock.html. Chambers, William, and Robert Chambers, comps. Chambers's Journal of Popular Literature, Science and Arts. Vol. XIX. London: W. & R. Chambers, 1863. Print. ) 125With earnest Eyes, and round unthinking Face, 126He first the Snuff-box open'd, then the Case, 127 And thus broke out--- "My Lord, why, what the Devil? 128 "Z---ds!n193 n193A commonly used word in 18th century English literature. One source identifies it as standing for "Zounds," short for "God's Wounds," which was a curse word used in a similar context to "damn". "Hydrargyrum." Genius. Web. 8 Nov. 2015. http://genius.com/Hydrargyrum.damn the Lock! 'fore Gad, you must be civil! 129"Plague on't! 'tis past a Jest---nay prithee, Poxa194n194The "Pox" in this case likely refers to smallpox, which in 18th century was a rampant epidemic in England and the rest of Europe that killed, on average, 400,000 people annually. Riedel, Stefan. "Edward Jenner and the History of Smallpox and Vaccination." Proceedings (Baylor University. Medical Center). Baylor Health Care System, 18 Jan. 2005. Web. 8 Dec. 2015. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1200696/.! 130"Give her the Hair---he spoke, and rapp'd his Box. 131It grieves me much (reply'd the Peer again) 132Who speaks so well shou'd ever speak in vain. 133But * by this Lockn195n195This passage directly alludes to a passage from Homer in which Achilles cuts off a lock of his own hair to mourn and commemorate the death of Patroclus. This leads many of his men to follow suit and cut off locks of their own hair to place, and Achilles then cuts off another lock of his hair that he had been growing for the river Spercheus to make his trip home safer. This continues the trend throughout the poem of using military conquest language to describe the event of cutting off a lock of Belinda's hair. "Bk XXIII:1-53 Achilles Again Mourns Patroclus." Homer: The Iliad Book XXIII. 28 Aug. 2009. Web. 8 Nov. 2015. http://www.poetryintranslation.com/PITBR/Greek/Iliad23.htm#_Toc239246468., this sacred Lock I swear. 134 (Which never more shall join its parted Hair, 38 135Which never more its Honours shall renew, 136Clipt from the lovely Head where once it grew) 137That while my Nostrils draw the vital Air, 138This Hand, which won it, shall for ever wear. 139He spoke, and speaking in proud Triumph spread 140The long-contended Honours of her Head. 141 But Umbriel , hateful Gnomen196 n196This use of the word "gnome" could refer to the fact that in 18th century Britain, wealthy aristocrats often hired real people to live in a corner of their lavish gardens as hermits or "gnomes." These gnomes were often poor people in society who needed a place to live, and for the rich, hiring gnomes for their gardens helped justify and add purpose to their great wealth. Osborne, Hannah. "18th Century Aristocrats Hired People to Live as Hermits in Their Gardens." International Business Times RSS. 19 Dec. 2013. Web. 8 Nov. 2015. http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/18th-century-aristocrats-hired-people-live-hermits-their-gardens-1429663. ! forbears not so; 142He breaks the Vial whence the Sorrows flow. 143 Then see! the Nymph in beauteous Grief appears, 144Her Eyes half languishing, half drown'd in Tears; 145On her heav'd Bosom hung her drooping Head, 146Which, with a Sigh, she rais'd; and thus she said. 147For ever curs'd be this detested Day, 148Which snatch'd my best, my fav'rite Curl away! 149Happy! ah ten times happy, had I been, 150 If Hampton-Courtn197 n197The same Hampton Court, the large palace in London that famously was the residence of King Henry VIII, to which the earlier line about "Hampton's Echos" refers. "Hampton Court Palace." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 2 Dec. 2015. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hampton_Court_Palace. these Eyes had never seen! 151Yet am not I the first mistaken Maid, 152 By Love of Courts to num'rous Ills betray'd. 39 153Oh had I rather un-admir'd remain'd 154 In some lone Isle, or distant Northern Land; 155 Where the gilt Chariotn198 n198May be a reference to the chariot driven by Helios (whose identity was later subsumed into that of Apollo), the god of the sun and a Titan, in order to mark the waxing and waning of daylight. He was complemented by his sisters, Eos and Selene, who personified the Dawn and the Moon, respectively. "Helios." Greek Mythology. GreekMythology.com. Web. 3 Dec. 2015. http://www.greekmythology.com/Other_Gods/Helios/helios.html. never mark'd the way, 156 Where none learn Ombre , none e'er taste Bohean199 n199A black tea that originated in China's Buyi hills, for which it is named, and was of relatively low quality. "Definition of Bohea in English:." Bohea: Definition of Bohea in Oxford Dictionary (American English) (US). Web. 8 Nov. 2015. http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/bohea. ! 157There kept my Charms conceal'd from mortal Eye, 158Like Roses that in Desarts bloom and die. 159What mov'd my Mind with youthful Lords to rome? 160O had I stay'd, and said my Pray'rs at home! 161 'Twas this, the Morning Omens did foretel; 162 Thrice from my trembling hand the Patch-boxn200 n200A small and rectangular (at times oval) box with beauty patches, which were worn by ladies of fashion during the 18th century so that the fairness of their skin might be accentuated. A patch box was bejeweled and made of gold, and could also be painted/enameled with "amorous scenes." A patch could have the appearance of a star, an animal, a insect, a figure, a crescent, or a spot. The location of a patch also contributed to its signification. "Patch Box." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 3 Dec. 2015. http://www.britannica.com/topic/patch-box. fell; 163 The tott'ring Chinan201 n201"China" in this context refers to porcelain dishes that came via trade routes from China. These trade routes between China and England first began to flourish during the 18th century, and many rich English citizens were obsessed with obtaining as many "exotic" Chinese goods as they could to show off their wealth. Chang, Elizabeth. "The Chinese Taste in Eighteenth-Century England." Eighteenth-Century Fiction 25 (2012): 248-50. University of Toronto Press. Web. 8 Dec. 2015. shook without a Wind, 164 Nay, Polln202 n202Refers to a parrot which Belinda had for a pet. http://www.cummingsstudyguides.net/Guides2/Pope.html sate mute, and Shock was most Unkind! 165 A Sylph too warn'd me of the Threats of Fate, 166In mystic Visions, now believ'd too late! 167See the poor Remnants of this slighted Hair! 168My hands shall rend what ev'n thy own did spare. 169This, in two sable Ringlets taught to break, 170Once gave new Beauties to the snowie Neck. 171The Sister-Lock now sits uncouth, alone, 172 And in its Fellow's Fate foresees its own; 40 173Uncurl'd it hangs, the fatal Sheers demands; 174And tempts once more thy sacrilegious Hands. 175Oh hadst thou, Cruel! been content to seize 176Hairs less in sight, or any Hairs but these!
[Engraving] 41 THE RAPE of the LOCK.
CANTO V. 1SHE said: the pitying Audience melt in Tears, 2 But Fate and Joven203 n203Jove, also known as Jupiter, was the king of the Roman gods. He is the roman equivalent to Zeus. Source: http://www.britannica.com/topic/Jupiter-Roman-god had stopp'd the Baron 's Earsn204 n204The only reason the Baron did not listen to her "Tears" was the interference of Fate and Jove drawing connections to the gods interference in human affairs in mythological tales.. 3 In vain Thalestris with Reproach assails, 4 For who can move when fair Belinda fails? 5 Not half to fixt the Trojan cou'd remain, 6 While Anna begg'd and Didon205 n205In the Aeneid by Virgil, Aeneas, the lover of Dido, queen of Carthage, is told by Zeus he must leave Italy because of fate and as a last effort Dido sends her sister Anna to persuade him to stay in Italy but fails. Source: Virgil, and Philip R. Hardie. Aeneid. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1994. Print. rag'd in vain. 7 To Arms, to Arms! the bold Thalestris cries, 8 And swift as Lightning to the Combate flies. 42 9All side in Parties, and begin th' Attack; 10 Fans clap, Silks russle, and tough Whalebonesn206 n206Used to stiffen various articles of fashionable clothing, but also in the frames of military helmets. "Utilitarian Uses." Baleen (whale-bone) uses. University of Aberdeen, 2002. Web. 1 December, 2015 http://www.scran.ac.uk/packs/exhibitions/learning_materials/webs/40/utilitarian.htmcrack; 11Heroes and Heroins Shouts confus'dly rise, 12And base, and treble Voices strike the Skies. 13No common Weapons in their Hands are found, 14Like Gods they fight, nor dread a mortal Wound. 15 * So when bold Homer makes the Gods engagen207 n207Homer makes the gods fight in his tales similar to the way Pope forces the characters in the poem to fight., 16And heav'nly Breasts with human Passions rage; 17 'Gainst Pallasn208 n208Titan god of warcraft in Greek Mythology Atsma, Aaron J. "Pallas." Theoi Project, n.d. 1 December, 2015 http://www.theoi.com/Titan/TitanPallas.html Could also refer to Athena, goddess of wisdom., Marsn209 n209Roman god of war. Source: "Mars". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2015. Web. 07 Dec. 2015 http://www.britannica.com/topic/Mars-Roman-god.; Latonan210 n210In Greek Mythology, Mother of Apollo and Diana, Mistress of Jupiter "The Legend of Latona." The Latona Foundation. Chateau de Versailles, n.d. Web. 1 December 2015 http://latone.chateauversailles.fr/en/page/the-latona-fountain/the-legend-of-latona, Hermesn211 n211In Greek mythology, Hermes is known as the messenger god. He was also a god of trade, thieves, travelers, sports, athletes, border crossings, and a guide to the Underworld. Source: "Hermes". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2015. Web. 07 Dec. 2015 http://www.britannica.com/topic/Hermes-Greek-mythology. , Arms; 18 And all Olympus rings with loud Alarms. 19 Jove 's Thunder roars, Heav'n trembles all around; 20 Blue Neptune storms, the bellowing Deeps resound; 21 Earth shakes her nodding Tow'rs, the Ground gives way; 22And the pale Ghosts start at the Flash of Day! 23 Triumphant Umbriel on a Sconce'sn212 n212A lantern or candlestick with a screen to protect the light from the wind, and a handle to carry Source: "sconce, n.1." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.Height 24Clapt his glad Wings, and sate to view the Fightn213 n213Pope adds in a footnote: "Minerva in like manner, during the Battle of Ulysses with the Suitors in Odyss. perches on a beam of the roof to behold it." Source: Pope, Alexander, and Adolphus William Ward. The Poetical Works of Alexander Pope. London: Macmillan, 1907. Print., 25Propt on their Bodkin Spears the Sprights survey 26The growing Combat, or assist the Fray. 43 27 While thro' the Press enrag'd Thalestries flies, 28And scatters Deaths around from both her Eyes, 29 A Beaun214 n214An old term for a courtier. In the 18th century, the term also meant a man who was concerned with his dress and appearance. Source: "beau, adj. and n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 7 December 2015. and Witlingn215 n215One who fancies himself a wit "witling, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, December 2015. Web. 8 December 2015. http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/229709?redirectedFrom=witling#eid perish'd in the Throng, 30 One dy'd in Metaphor , and one in Song . 31 O cruel Nymph! a living Death I bear , 32 Cry'd Dapperwitn216 n216Character in Wycherley's play "Love in a Wood." A witless suitor who is tricked into marrying a pregnant woman. http://www.enotes.com/topics/love-wood/characters , and sunk beside his Chair. 33 A mournful Glance Sir Foplingn217 n217Reference to Sir Fopling Flutter, a character in George Etherege's play the Man of Mode https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Man_of_Mode upwards cast, 34 * Those Eyes are made so killingn218 n218Pope adds a footnote: "The Words of a Song in the Opera of Camilla" Source: Pope, Alexander, and Adolphus William Ward. The Poetical Works of Alexander Pope. London: Macmillan, 1907. Print. ---was his last: 35 Thus on Meandern219 n219in Greek Mythology, name for the river god and his river, which flowed from Phrygia to the Aegean Sea. Stewart, Michael. "People, Places & Things: Meander", Greek Mythology: From the Iliad to the Fall of the Last Tyrant. n.p., n.d. Web. 1 December 2015 http://messagenetcommresearch.com/myths/ppt/Meander_1.html 's flow'ry Margin lies 36Th' expiring Swan, and as he sings he dies. 37 As bold Sir Plumen220 n220The name gives insight to the character. A plume is an arrangement of feathers used by a bird for display or worn by a person for ornament. Plume is also used as a verb 'to plume oneself' synonymous to the action of preening at one's looks. Source: "plume, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015. had drawn Clarissa down, 38 Chloe stept in, and kill'd him with a Frown; 39She smil'd to see the doughtyn221 n221Brave, capable, and determined, also marked by fearless resolution. Source: "doughty, adj." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.Hero slain, 40But at her Smile, the Beau reviv'd again. 41 + Now Joven222 n222Jove is a god of balance presiding over laws and social order. These lines are referencing in the Iliad,"the father of all balanced his golden scales and placed a doom in each of them". Zeus, the Greek version of Jove used his scales to balance Hector and Achilles and determine their fate. Sources: Homer, Barbara Graziosi, and Johannes Haubold. Iliad. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2010. Print. "Jove". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2015. Web. 07 Dec. 2015 http://www.britannica.com/topic/Jupiter-Roman-god. suspends his golden Scales in Air, 42 Weighs the Mens Wits against the Lady's Hair; 44 43The doubtful Beam long nods from side to side; 44At length the Wits mount up, the Hairs subsiden223 n223Jove weighs the battle in the men's favor, but Belinda overcomes this by tossing snuff in the Baron's face.. 45 See fierce Belinda on the Baron flies, 46With more than usual Lightning in her Eyesn224 n224Allusion to their god-like state of being.; 47Nor fear'd the Chief th' unequal Fight to try, 48Who sought no more than on his Foe to dien225 n225"to die" is a common euphemism for orgasm. It was a common poetical term in the 16th and 17th centuries. Source: "die, v.1." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.. 49But this bold Lord, with manly Strength indu'd, 50She with one Finger and a Thumb subdu'd, 51Just where the Breath of Life his Nostrils drew, 52 A Charge of Snuffn226 n226A fine-ground tobacco, intended for consumption through inhalation or sniffed into the nose. the wily Virgin threw; 53 The Gnomes direct, to ev'ry Atomen227 n227In reference to ancient Greek philosophy: a hypothetical particle, minute and indivisible, held to be one of the ultimate particles of matter. Source: "atom, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, December 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.just, 54The pungent Grains of titillating Dust. 55Sudden, with starting Tears each Eye o'erflows, 56And the high Dome re-ecchoes to his Nose. 57Now meet thy Fate, th' incens'd Viragon228 n228A man-like, heroic woman "virago, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, December 2015. Web. 8 December 2015. http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/223704?redirectedFrom=virago#eidcry'd, 58 And drew a deadly Bodkin from her Side. 59(*The same, his ancient Personagen229 n229Pope adds in a footnote: "In imitation of the progress of Agamemnon's sceptre in Homer" Source: Pope, Alexander, and Adolphus William Ward. The Poetical Works of Alexander Pope. London: Macmillan, 1907. Print. to deck, 60 Her great great Grandsire wore about his Neck 45 61 In three Seal-Rings n230a finger ring bearing a seal; signet ring Source: "seal, n.2." OED Online. Oxford University Press, December 2015. Web. 8 December 2015. ; which after melted down, 62 Form'd a vast Buckle for his Widow's Gown: 63 Her infant Grandame'sn231 n231archaic term for grandmother Source: "grandam, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, December 2015. Web. 8 December 2015. Whistle next it grew, 64 The Bells she gingled, and the Whistle blew; 65 Then in a Bodkin grac'd her Mother's Hairs, 66 Which long she wore, and now Belinda wears.) 67Boast not my Fall (he cry'd) insulting Foe! 68Thou by some other shalt be laid as low. 69Nor think, to die dejects my lofty Mind; 70All that I dread, is leaving you behind! 71Rather than so, ah let me still survive, 72 And burn in Cupid 's Flames,---but burn alive. 73 Restore the Lock ! she cries; and all around 74 Restore the Lock ! the vaulted Roofs rebound. 75 Not fierce Othellon232 n232In Shakespeare's Othello, the titular character is tricked into believing his wife has been unfaithful by his ensign Iago, who plants her handkerchief in the room of Othello's lieutenant, Cassio in so loud a Strain 76Roar'd for the Handkerchief that caus'd his Pain. 77But see how oft Ambitious Aims are cross'd, 78 And Chiefs contend 'till all the Prize is lost! 46 79The Lock, obtain'd with Guilt, and kept with Pain, 80In ev'ry place is sought, but sought in vain: 81With such a Prize no Mortal must be blest, 82So Heav'n decrees! with Heav'n who can contest? 83Some thought it mounted to the Lunar Sphere, 84 * Since all things lost on Earth, are treasur'd there. 85There Heroe's Wits are kept in pondrous Vases, 86 And Beau's in Snuff-boxes and Tweezer-Cases . 87There broken Vows, and Death-bed Almsn233 n233acts of charity Source: "alms, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, December 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.are found, 88And Lovers Hearts with Ends of Ribandn234 n234fabric forming a narrow strip or band; ribbon Source: "riband, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, December 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.bound; 89The Courtiers Promises, and Sick Man's Pray'rs, 90The Smiles of Harlots, and the Tears of Heirs, 91Cages for Gnats, and Chains to Yoak a Flea; 92Dry'd Butterflies, and Tomes of Casuistryn235 n235Thick books of meaningless philosophy through the use of clever but unsound reasoning, especially in relation to moral questions. Source: "casuistry, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.. 93But trust the Muse---she saw it upward rise, 94Tho' mark'd by none but quick Poetic Eyes: 95 (So Rome 's great Foundern236 n236In popular myth, Rome was founded by Romulus, who ruled for 37 years and then mysteriously disappeared. Proculus swore that he saw Romulus ascending to heaven. http://www.crystalinks.com/romulus.htmlto the Heav'ns withdrew, 96 To Proculus alone confess'd in view.) 47 97A sudden Star, it shot thro' liquid Air, 98 And drew behind a radiant Trail of Hair . 99 Not Berenicen237 n237Berenice was the wife of Ptolemy III. During battle, Berenice dedicates a lock of her hair to Aphrodite as an offering for Ptolemy's safe return. After the offering, the lock vanished and was transformed into a constellation, now called Coma Berenices. "Coma Berenices". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2015. Web. 08 Dec. 2015 http://www.britannica.com/topic/Coma-Berenices. Hevelius, Johannes. a costellazione del Boote e della Chioma di Berenice. 1690. Wikimedia Commons. Wikimedia Foundation. Web. 7 December 2015. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hev_09_fig_F_bootes_coma_berenices_et_mons_maenalus.jpg 's Locks first rose so bright, 100The Skies bespangling with dishevel'd Light. 101 The Sylphs behold it kindling as it flies, 102And pleas'd pursue its Progress thro' the Skies. 103 This the Beau-monden238 n238Fashionable or high society Source: "beau monde, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015. shall from the Malln239 n239A "shaded walk serving as a promenade," generalized from The Mall, a name of a broad, tree-lined promenade in St. James's Park, London. survey, 104And hail with Musick its propitious Ray. 105 This, the blest Lover shall for Venus take, 106 And send up Vows from Rosamondan240 n240Body of water in St. James' Park Shmoop Editorial Team. "The Rape of the Lock Allusions." Shmoop. Shmoop University, Inc., 11 Nov. 2008. Web. 1 Dec. 2015. http://www.shmoop.com/the-rape-of-the-lock/allusions.html 's Lake. 107 This Partridge n241John Partridge (1644 - c. 1714) an astrologer known for publishing almanacs with (generally incorrect) yearly predictions of deaths of notable individuals like the King of France (during a time where France and England were at war). Source: McIntosh, Christopher. A Short History of Astrology. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1994. Print. soon shall view in cloudless Skies, 108 When next he looks thro' Galilaeo 's Eyesn242 n242i.e., the telescope, developed by Galileo Galilei; 109And hence th' Egregious Wizard shall foredoom 110 The Fate of Louisn243 n243Likely a reference to the King of France, Louis the XIV at the time; also notable because Louis XIV and England had long been at war. , and the Fall of Rome . 111 Then cease, bright Nymph! to mourn the ravish'd Hair 112Which adds new Glory to the shining Spheren244 n244General note: "Sphere" is pronounced to rhyme with "Hair" Source: Ellis, Alexander John, William Salesbury, Johann Adreas Schmeller, Alexander Barclay. On Early English Pronunciation. London: Pub. for the Philological Society by Asher, by Trübner, 1869. 965. Print.! 113Not all the Tresses that fair Head can boast 114 Shall draw such Envy as the Lock you lost. 48 115For, after all the Murders of your Eye, 116When, after Millions slain, your self shall die; 117 When those fair Suns shall sett, as sett they must, 118And all those Tresses shall be laid in Dust; 119 This Lock , the Musen245 n245Referring to Pope himself. He created this poem that will make Arabella's hair live on forever.shall consecrate to Fame, 120 And mid'st the Stars inscribe Belinda 's Name! 121 FINIS.

Footnotes

a00001The frontispiece was designed by Louis du Guernier (1677-1716) a well-known illustrator of the period; he also designed the images that appear before each of the five cantos. They were engraved by Claude du Bosc (1682-1745?); both men had been born in France but moved to London, probably in pursuit of the good opportunities for skilled engravers in the London book trade, and worked together on a number of projects for London patrons and booksellers in these years. Illustrations as detailed as these were very time-consuming and therefore expensive to produce, and the presence of six custom-engraved images was a sign that Pope and his publisher Bernard Lintot were trying to create a particularly impressive and beautiful object. Pope, who was a talented amateur painter in his own right, almost certainly had a role in designing the images, although we do not know exactly how he participated. The frontispiece is a composite of major events in the poem to follow. The "sylphs," spirits of vanity and erotic desire, float around Belinda, the heroine of the poem, as she puts on her makeup; they also drop playing cards, alluding to the card game in Canto III, and point to the shooting star that ascends at the end of Canto V. In the front lower right of the image, a satyr, with pointed ears and cloven hoofs, holds the kind of mask that women in the period sometimes wore in public; like many authors in the period, Pope is playing on the homophone between "satyr," the sexually-agressive half-human, half-animals of Greek mythology, and "satire," the literary form of which "The Rape of the Lock" is an example. Behind the characters is the facade of Hampton Court Palace, the royal home down the Thames from London where much of the action of the poem takes place. Pope clearly intended the images and the poem to be read together, a feature that is not possible in most modern reproductions of the poem, which rely on the poetic text alone.
a0001

Alexander Pope’s "The Rape of the Lock" is the most famous poem written in English in the eighteenth century. Chances are, if a modern reader knows only one poem from the period, this is the one. Which is a strange thing. The poem’s subject matter is unusual, even unique: the cutting off of a lock of hair from the head of a young woman and the aftermath of that event. And the poem is written in a form, the heroic couplet, that is rarely used today. But "The Rape of the Lock" has endured because it so fully captured, while also satirizing, an image of a particular world, a world of aristocratic ease, but also great anxiety. And it is also an astonishing accomplishment simply as a poem. No poet of the eighteenth century used the heroic couplet more deftly than Alexander Pope (depicted here in a contemporary painting by Charles Jervis; National Portrait Gallery, London), and perhaps nowhere in his career did he craft couplets and the larger units he built from them—verse paragraphs, cantos, the entire poem itself—with greater verve and delicacy.

The poem is based on a true story. At a party one day in 1710 or 1711, Robert Petre, a young man from an aristocratic family, crept up behind Arabella Fermor, a young woman also from a prosperous household, and cut off a lock of her hair. Petre may have thought of this as an amusing, or even a flirtatious prank, but she was angry, and the two families started snubbing and sniping at each other. Years later, Pope described what happened next: “The stealing of Miss Belle Fermor’s hair was taken too seriously, and caused an estrangement between the two families, though they had lived long in great friendship before. A common acquaintance and well-wisher to both desired me to write a poem to make a jest of it, and laugh them together again. It was in this view that I wrote my Rape of the Lock, which was well received and had its effect in the two families.” The “common acquaintance” was John Caryll, a friend of Pope’s who was also close to both the Fermor and Petre families. Like all of them, Caryll was also a Catholic who faced persecution in an era when the government of Britain continued to suspect that Catholics were potentially a subversive force whose loyalties to the Protestant monarchy could not be assured. (And sometimes with reason; Caryll was a Jacobite, a supporter of the exiled Pretender, the Stuart James III, who continued to claim that he was the true king of Britain. Caryll never joined in any of the conspiracies that took place in this period to restore the Stuart monarchy, but he did secretly, and illegally, support a Catholic church in his neighborhood.) Caryll may have felt that Catholics in Britain had enough problems without feuding among themselves. Pope, who was at this point starting work on a massive translation of Homer’s poem The Iliad, seems quickly to have seen the possibility of re-imagining the incident in epic terms, creating what has been called a “mock epic” for the way in which it uses the conventions of epic poetry to describe what is by comparison a trivial event.

Pope’s memory of the happy outcome of the poem was, however, a little rose colored from time. Pope wrote the first version of "The Rape of the Lock" quickly—he said it took two weeks; he may have been exaggerating—and it then circulated among the families and their friends in manuscript for a while. That version of the poem, which was much shorter than the one that has ultimately been most read, was published anonymously in 1712, and at this point things got more complicated. As more and more people read the poem now that it was in print, the double entendres and erotic implications of Pope’s work became clearer, and Arabella Fermor—who had initially agreed with letting the poem be printed—was embarrassed as friends started pointing out to her where the dirty jokes were. Sir Charles Brown, the original for the “Sir Plume” of the poem, was also angry at the way he was portrayed (as an idiot). Pope went back to work, and over the course of the next couple of years, added the elaborate “machinery” of the poem, the sylphs and fairies that hover around the action, embedding the original story in a framework of fantasy that deflects some of the agency of the central characters. (Robert Petre’s response to the publication of the first version of the poem is, by the way, unrecorded. Petre married Catherine Walsmeley in 1712, but he died only a few months later from smallpox.) Pope included a letter of dedication to Arabella Fermor that aimed to defuse some of her anger. That new edition, handsomely printed with engravings accompanying each canto, was published as a separate volume in 1714, and immediately became a best-seller, selling around 3,000 copies in four days, which even now would be an extraordinary total for any book, much less a poem in rhyming couplets. It has been admired, critiqued, and argued with ever since.

a001Pope is the inventor of this term, which first appeared here at the opening of The Rape of the Lock. He is indicating that he will emulate such epics as Homer's Iliad or Milton's Paradise Lost, but in a comic register.
a002The full quote, which comes from Book VIII of Ovid's Metamorphoses, should read, "Ciris et, a tonso est hoc nomen adepta capillo": she acquired the name from the cutting of the hair. Ovid's story, first published in 8 CE, goes like this. Nisus was the King of Alcathous and he had a lock of purple hair on hiscrown that guaranteed the safety of his kingdom. Scylla, his daughter, fell in love with King Minos, who was conquering this kingdom, and in order to gain his favor, Scylla cut off the lock of her father's hair. But, disgusted with her disloyalty, Minos left by ship. As Scylla swam after Minos, King Nisos, having been transformed into a sea eagle, attempted to drown her. Instead of drowning,Scylla was turned to a sea bird and called Ciris, (cutter), being named after the lock that she cut off. See Ovid's Metamorphoses, translated by Anthony S. Kline, http://ovid.lib.virginia.edu/trans/Metamorph8.htm
a003Arabella Fermor (1696-1737; image credit: Victoria and Albert Museum) was from a prominent Catholic family, and she came to public attention in an unwelcome way when Robert Petre, from another prominent Catholic family, surreptitiously cut off a lock of her hair. She was (justifiably) angry, and the Fermor and Petre families (who may have been in negotiations to marry the two), became estranged. John Caryll, a friend of Pope's and also Robert Petre's guardian, asked Pope to write about the incident in such a way as to make a joke of it and smooth relations. The Rape of the Lock is Pope's effort to heal the breach. He did not, however, ask Arabella Fermor for her approval before publishing the first version of the poem in 1712, and she was initially unhappy at the poem's double-entendre and the way that it seemed to compare her situation to raped heroines of antiquity like Helen of Troy or Lucrece. This letter, published with the much-enlarged 1714 edition of the poem, can be read in part as Pope's attempt to mollify her.
a004Pope is probably referring to the Latin epigraph that appeared with the first edition of the poem: "Nolueram, Belinda, tuos violare capillos, / Sed juvat hoc precibus me tribuisse tuis," by the Roman poet Martial, in his Epigrams xii, 84, translates as, "I was loathe, Belinda, to violate your locks, but I am pleased to have granted that much to your prayers." Pope is insinuating that Arabella Fermor asked for the poem to be written. This was not the case.
a005An earlier edition of this work had no letter to Arabella Fermor. Instead there was a different Latin motto, as noted earlier. Apparently, even though J. Caryll asked Pope to write it, The Rape of The Lock was written without the knowledge and permission of Arabella. Upon finding out that it displeased her, Pope wrote this letter to appease her, and with the current Latin phrase at the beginning. Here, he is praising her good nature to have allowed him to publish a more correct version.
a006Refers to the fairy-like creatures that are in the poems; the sylphys, the nymphs, the gnomes, the salamanders. As he explains in the next line, they are the portrayals of what we would call in the real world, deities, angels or demons.
a007Pope is referring to a non-religious order who "are a community of Seekers who study and practice the metaphysical laws governing the universe." "The Rosicrucian movement, of which the Rosicrucian Order, AMORC, is the most prominent modern representative, has its roots in the mystery traditions, philosophy, and myths of ancient Egypt dating back to approximately 1500 BCE In antiquity the word “mystery” referred to a special gnosis, a secret wisdom." He explains some part of their philosophy, as it relates to the poem, in the next few lines. "Understanding Reincarnation & Esoteric Teachings of Rosicrucians." The Rosicrucian Order, AMORC. placemakinggroupcom. Web. 5 Dec 2015
a008This statement offers the reader a little flavor of how women were perceived in the public imagination during 1714.
a00917th-century French text by Abbé Nicolas-Pierre-Henri de Montfaucon de Villars (1635-1673) The titular "Comte de Gabalis" ("Count of Cabala") is an occultist who explains the mysteries of the world to the author. See "Paracelsian Spirits in Pope's Rape of the Lock," Airy Nothings: Imagining the Otherworld of Faerie from the Middle Ages to the Age of Reason: Essays in Honour of Alasdair A. McDonald. Ed. Karin Olsen and Jan Veenstra. Vol 222. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2014. Print.
a010Pope's use of mistake lends an eye into the status of the novel in popular culture at this time. To an English reader of 1714, the word "novel" still sounded like a French import, and it would have denoted a short, perhaps slightly scandalous, love story. The novel was not understood to be a genre capable of intricate themes. Any reading of a novel for more than entertainment is a "mistake" This was a popular stance given how new the form was, not nearly as well established as the 3,000 year old epic poetry of Homer and Virgil.
a012He is referring to John Caryll, Sr. (1667-1736), the IInd Baron Caryll of Durford. Caryll, Sr. was a close friend of Pope and the guardian of Baron Petre, who was the perpetrator of the crime of cutting off a lock of Arabella's hair in real life. Caryll requested Pope to write about the incident. Rogers, Pat. The Alexander Pope Encyclopedia. Westport: Greenwood, 2004. Print. Erskine-Hill, Howard. The Social Milieu of Alexander Pope: Lives, Example, and the Poetic Response. Illustrated ed. New Haven: Yale UP, 1975. 344. Print.
a013The heroine of the poem, inspired by Arabella Fermor, even though Pope says they are similar only in beauty. Pope, Alexander. The Rape of The Lock. London: Bernard Lintott. 1714.
a014Pope is prefacing the reader for the poem. Take note of the delaying of information. He cannot simply give us the reason for these cantos without explaining everything that has come up to this moment. This device satirizes classical epics and their introductions as Homer invokes the muses who inspired the Iliad, except this time the muse is his friend Carryl.
a015Sol is Latin for the Sun. "sol, n.1." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 5 December 2015.
a016Shock is Belinda's dog. In lines 115-116, it says that Shock leapt up and woke his mistress with his tongue. In other editions, "shock" is replaced with "lap dog." Pope, Alexander. Canto I. The Rape of The Lock. London: Bernard Lintott. 1714.
a017According to a "literary kitchen" blog entry entitled "A Literary History of Chocolate: Part 1," chocolate was a breakfast drink for those who could afford such a luxurious meal.Belinda, being both wealthy and frivolous, can afford to drink such a meal while businessmen drank coffee in the morning. The reference to the drink is meant to draw attention to the characters' failure "to distinguish between serious matters and pleasure", thus ridiculing Arabella's drastic response to what was meant to be a simple prank. Litkit88 [Nico and Amy]. "A Literary History of Chocolate: Part 1." Wordpress. Wordpress, 27 Sept. 2015. Web. 8 Dec. 2015.
a018Belinda stomped her slippered foot against the ground three times, calling for her maids. "No. 2217." The Athenaeum: Journal of Literature, Science, the Fine Arts, Music and the Drama, Vol. 3030. London: John Francis. 1870. Print. Orginial from National Library of the Netherlands
a019Striking watches indicate the hour and quarter-hour by means of hammers hitting bells or gongs. The watch rang, announcing that it was 10 o'clock. Nardin, Yannick. "Striking Watches." Fondation De La Haute Horlogerie. Fondation De La Haute Horlogerie/Virtua SA, 2009. Web. 5 Dec. 2015. https://www.hautehorlogerie.org/en/encyclopaedia/watches/complication-watches/d/s/striking-watches/.
a020As Pope has explained in the introductory letter, there are four groups of fairy like creatures that guard over women: Sylphs, Nymphs, Gnomes, and Salamanders. We are introduced to Belinda's guardian, a sylph, here nameless, but later, called Ariel. (line 106) Jan, K. M., and Shabnam Firdaus. "Rape of the Lock by Pope." A Guide to English Literature. New Delhi: Atlantic & Distributors, 2003. Print. Pope, Alexander. Canto I. The Rape of The Lock. London: Bernard Lintott. 1714.
a021sleep "rest" The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language, Volume 3. Ed. Charles Annadale. Comp. John Ogilvie. Vol. 3. Glasgow, Edinburgh, London: Blackie and Son, 1883. Print.
a022Ariel, Belinda's guardian Sylph, created the dream that she was having. (interpretive/explanatory note - AG)
a023referring to someone more decked up and beautiful than a man would be on his birthday. birth-night: the night on which a person is born; the night annually kept in memory of someone's birth; evening of a court birthday on which a festival was held. "birthnight, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 5 December 2015. beau: A man who gives particular, or excessive, attention to dress, mien, and social etiquette; an exquisite, a fop, a dandy. "beau, adj. and n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 5 December 2015.
a024Addressing Belinda in her sleep. She is the fairest of mortals and under the care of the fairy creatures. (interpretive/explanatory note - AG)
a025Folklore that says that fairies and elves left silver tokens in rings of dark coarse grass that were supposed to be where fairies danced. The tokens were supposedly left for humans who were favored by fairies. Pat Rogers attributes the use to Jonathan Swift's, Dryades: Or, the Nymphs Prophesy, although that probably comes from ancient folklore as well. Rogers, Pat. "Faery Lore and The Rape of the Lock." Essays on Pope. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1993. Print.
a026An allusion to Ovid's Metamorphoses. In Book 1, Ovid tells the story of Daphne and Apollo. Apollo is struck by Cupid's arrow making him obsessively enamored with a virgin nymph Daphne. Cupid, however, struck Daphne with an arrow that makes her despise Apollo. So she flees him, but Apollo finally catches her. Rather than be with Apollo, Daphne asks her father for help. He, being a river god, turns her into a laurel tree. Laurels, of course, are used to construct crown wreaths.
a028The light Militia are the fairy creatures. The lower sky is their dwelling, the sky as it exists on Earth, as opposed to Heaven, where Angels dwell. While the creatures and setting are inspired by Le Comte de Gabalis, Pope uses language that is more aligned with Milton's depiction of Satan organizing his angels, In Paradise Lost, according to Jan Veenstra, in a collection of essays on fairy creatures. "Paracelsian Spirits in Pope's Rape of the Lock," Airy Nothings: Imagining the Otherworld of Faerie from the Middle Ages to the Age of Reason: Essays in Honour of Alasdair A. McDonald. Ed. Karin Olsen and Jan Veenstra. Vol 222. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2014. Print.
a029The creatures are always present (on the wing meaning in flight) in the places where London's society is found.
a030A ‘box’ in a theatre or opera-house.
a031Ring - Charles I created a circular track called the Ring in Hyde Park where members of the royal court could drive their carriages. The park was opened to the public in 1637 and it soon became a fashionable place to visit, particularly on May Day. "Landscape History." The Royal Parks. Web. 5 Dec. 2015. https://www.royalparks.org.uk/parks/hyde-park/about-hyde-park/landscape-history.
a033Here it refers to a carriage with horses and attendants, but can also just mean carriage alone. It also has other uses that deal with military garb, or things needed for a military expedition, or general "get up" or dress. "equipage, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 5 December 2015.
a034 a035As an antithetical image to the equipage afforded to Belinda by the Sylphs, "Two Pages and a Chair" refers to the attendants who would carry the lady on a chair. In Britain they are called sedan chairs but there are similar "vehicles" all over the the world. Also called litters, or "gestatorial chair" for the Pope. T. Atkinson Jenkins. "Origin of the Word Sedan", Hispanic Review, Vol. 1, No. 3 (July 1933), pp. 240-242)
a036The fairy creatures used to be beautiful women like Belinda. (interpretive/explanatory note - AG)
a037Possibly death, or some (magical) means by which they are transformed from their human selves in to the fairy creatures. "transition, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 5 December 2015.
a038the human body earthly - pertaining to physical, worldly, material. "earthly, adj. and n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 5 December 2015. vehicle - vessel for carrying something, as in possibly the human soul. "vehicle, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 5 December 2015.
a039Implies that life is a game of cards, specifically the game of Ombre. After the "transition" spoken of earlier, a woman or her "vanities," still can see and look at the cards although she does not play.
a040A trick-taking card game for three people using forty cards. A game of Ombre is played later on and is described in detail in Canto III. It is almost certainly no coincidence that the word ombre is archaic Spanish for "man"; Belinda is literally and figuratively playing the game of man."ombre, n.1." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 5 December 2015.
a041referring to women; the fairer (also gentler, softer, weaker, etc.) sex. "sex, n.1." Oxford English Dictionary Oxford University Press Web. 5 December 2015.
a042The four types of fairy creatures as he explained in the introductory letter: "the four Elements are inhabited by Spirits, which they call Sylphs, Gnomes, Nymphs, and Salamanders." Pope, Alexander. Letter to Arabella Fermor. The Rape of The Lock. London: Bernard Lintott. 1714.
a043Explanation of which types of woman became which spirit or element. The fiery boisterous women became Salamanders The mild demure women became Nymphs. Th3 prudish women became Gnomes. The flirty girlish women became Sylphs.
a044Pope cites all desirable things that men tend to do to woo the girl such as "Courtly Balls,""Midnight Masquerades," and the "Whisper in the Dark." Even when these conventions "prompts" young women to consider falling for the man, even when the "musick softens" there is something unnatural preventing these conventions from working.
a045This refers to the fact that all the works the spirits do to safeguard their maids'purity is seen by humans as something else. The description that mortals use for this phenomenon is 'being honorable' while the Celestials know that all of it is a guardian Sylph's doing. (interpretive note - AG)
a046The nymphs to whom these lines refer are the type of sprites, Gnomes, that urge young ladies to be proud to the point where they refuse the offers of gentlemen. Once the women embrace this vanity, there is no going back and they are left to live under the vain influence of the Gnomes for the rest of their lives.
a047Pope is citing vanity as an issue in his world. He is able to make such criticisms because he has changed the story about nymphs and modeled it after epic poetry.
a048This is the second time imagery of whispering is used. Earlier, Pope states that when men wish to seduce their women they "whisper in the dark." Here, when the mood is established with "soft sounds" the Sylph "salutes their Ear." In both scenarios, the decision to have sex or not have sex is decided by a seductive whisper. The women are not allowed to decide by their own agency, but must rather be lured to or away from their decision.
a049Pope is calling out against the trend of women to "tease" men all with the purpose of denying them later. He is blaming the gnomes for teaching young women to "roll" their eyes at the advances of men. Pope seems really upset when women lead him on as Canto 1 dedicates a portion of the text expressing the disdain.
a050Circle is a poetic term for the world or the globe.
a051Not a reference to any specific men. Florio, along with Damon, were common names used in early epic poetry to refer to men in general, the way we use, Tom, Dick, and Harry, today. "The aristocratic young men of the time were, like the ladies, lacking in any serious purpose or morality. Florio and Damon are representatives of those gallants and fops who vie with one another to capture the hearts of the ladies." "The Rape of the Lock" Is the Best Example of Relationship between Literature and Society." NeoEnglish. 1 Aug. 2010. Web. 5 Dec. 2015.
a053The epic warning regarding the endangerment of Belinda's purity conveyed by Ariel stems from his reading of bad omens by studying the air and looking to the stars. According to Encyclopedia Britannica, omens could be interpreted by patterns of nature, whether by cloud movements, flight of birds, or even air patterns and astrology, as described by Pope. "omen". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2015. Web. 08 Dec. 2015
a054(n.) the open sea "main, n.1." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.
a055(n.) a love letter. Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press, n.d. Web. 08 December 2015.
a056The toilet mentioned in this stanza refers most directly to a dressing table. These tables evolved in the 18th century from small tables with two or three drawers to elaborate pieces of furniture that could hold any and all accessories needed for daily grooming. "dressing table"; Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2015. Web. 08 Dec. 2015
a057mirror
a058Belinda's "toilet" is likened to an "altar" at which Belinda and her maid are now left to worship the priestess, or Belinda's "heav'nly image" as mentioned two lines above this line. By this point, it has become clear that the vanity nurtured by the Gnomes has set in, leaving the mortal human beings to worship a new priestess, Belinda's reflection.
a059This "rite of pride" is an allusion to a religious rite that might take place as a hero prepares for battle in his own ritualized manner. The objects involved in the performance of this "rite" are simple objects with earthly purposes, just as the objects would be with the readying of a hero, thus making this a reference to traditional epic poetry Pope is imitating. Epics always involve otherwordly forces, such as gods, and most actions take place in deference to these forces. Thus, it would not be unusual to perform some form of sacred rite before embarking into battle, whether the battle is one of swords and death or one of mere social interaction. "Six Elements of the Epic." Webpages. University of Idaho, n.d. Web. 8 Dec. 2015.
a060During the 18th century, Britain became the dominant empire among European trading empires as it became the first western nation to industrialize. During this time, merchants began trading with both North America and the West Indies, where colonies had been established. This granted Britain access to parts of the world and their amenities that had previously been unbeknownst to them. The ability to interact with far-off countries such as India and Arabia yielded new luxuries and a new understanding of the world outside of Europe. The ability for Belinda to have access to these luxuries further exemplifies her wealth. Morgan, Kenneth. "Symbiosis: Trade and the British Empire." History. BBC, 17 Feb. 2011. Web. 8 Dec. 2015.
a061"Glitt'ring spoil" refers directly to the spoils of war, "valuables seized by violence, especially in war," most likely as a result of the colonization of these foreign lands in pursuit of broadening trade opportunities. "Spoils." Collins English Dictionary 5th Edition. HarperCollins Publishers, 2000. Reverso.com Web. 8 Dec. 2015.
a062a. A small box or chest for jewels, letters, or other things of value, itself often of valuable material and richly ornamented. "casket, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 5 December 2015.
a063Since before recorded history, India has been a leading source for precious gems, producing some of the finest gemstones. "Aquamarine from Karur India - Fine Blue Aquamarine Gems Mined in India." Aquamarine from Karur India - Fine Blue Aquamarine Gems Mined in India. GemSelect.com, 2005. Web. 5 Dec. 2015. http://www.gemselect.com/help/newsletter/newsletter-aug-12.php.
a064Refers to scented oils or perfumes from the Arabian Peninsula or the middle east. as it is now known. They came in elaborate and ornate containers and were very expensive.
a065Refers to the jewelry that was made from or with tortoise shell and ivory from elephant tusks. "Endangered Jewelry | JCK." Endangered Jewelry | JCK. JCK Magazine, 1 May 1998. Web. 5 Dec. 2015. http://www.jckonline.com/2015/10/21/endangered-jewelry*.
a066"a small disk of black silk attached to the face, especially as worn by women in the 17th and 18th centuries for adornment" (OED) This is essentially an artificial beauty mark. "patch, n.1." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.
a067Awful: (adj.) awe-inspiring "awful, adj." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.
a068Arms: (n.) weapons With the use of militaristic diction as seen in "puts in all its Arms", Pope has Belinda preparing for battle just as Achilles prepared for the Trojan War in "The Illiad", further establishing "The Rape of the Lock" as a mock epic. "arm, n.2." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.
a069According to James Anderson Winn's "Queen Anne: Patroness of Arts", "Betty" had long served as a generic term for a maid. Winn, James Anderson. Queen Anne: Patroness of Arts. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.
a070"Of or relating to heaven, God, or the gods; heavenly, celestial." "ethereal, adj. and n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 30 November 2015. http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/64731
a071Belinda
a072The other women traveling with her (not the nymphs who are the protectors of her chastity).
a073Using the cross as a non-denominational decoration might refer to the breakdown of Catholic solidarity that these 'petty squabbles' might cause. (interpretive/thematic note)
a064Her indifference is depicted as a virtue, in contrast to the later moment when "an Earthly Lover lurking in her heart" indicates that she's not as virtuous as this line indicated, and therefore loses her the protection of the spirits. (interpretive note)
a075Belinda
a076Iv'ry speaks to expanding British Empire and the commodification of female beauty due to this expansion. (Interpretive note based on class discussions)
a077"his" is the personification of love
a078Variant of 'springe', "A snare for catching small game, esp. birds." "springe, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.
a079The curls (e.i. women's beauty), which trap men are being paralleled with the traps men set to catch birds.
a080Finny, adj, "Provided with or having fins; finned." The 'Finny Prey' refers to fish, which are also caught with a hair-like line, reiterating the comparison of beauty as a deadly trap. "finny, adj.1." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.
a081" a. A plait or braid of the hair of the head, usually of a woman. A long lock of hair (esp. that of a woman), without any sense of its being plaited or braided; mostly in pl. tresses." "tress, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 1 December 2015.
a082Given that Anne was on the throne, this may speak to a masculine anxiety about man's position of power. "Queen Anne, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.
a083First time Baron is introduced
a084"Force to ravish" refers to the act of rape. However, in this context, it is not referring to overpowering Belinda's body, but rather stealing her lock of hair.
a086The "Success" of a "Lover's Toil" in this era is marriage.
a086Variant spelling of Phoebus, a common name for Apollo, god of the sun. "Phoebus, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.
a087"n. a ribbon or tassel tied to the hilt of a sword (originating from the thong or lace with which the hilt was fastened to the wrist, but later used chiefly as a mere ornament or badge)." "sword-knot, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 1 December 2015.
a088"A strip of wood, whalebone, steel, or other rigid material attached vertically to the front section of a corset so as to stiffen and support it." "busk, n.3." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.
a089"A love-letter. (Now usually jocular.)" "billet-doux, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 1 December 2015.
a090"Of a person: lying with the face to the ground, in token of submission or humility, as in adoration, worship, or supplication; (hence more generally) lying stretched out on the ground, typically with the face downwards. Freq. in predicative or quasi-adverbial use, as in to fall prostrate, to lie prostrate, etc." (OED)
a091"the Prize" refers to Belinda's lock of hair.
a092"gave Ear" means that they (ambiguous supernatural entities) listened to Baron.
a093The "painted Vessel" refers to the boat gliding across the river Thames.
a094"The west wind, esp. as personified, or the god of the west wind." "zephyr, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.
a095The "Denizens of Air" refers to the other sylphs.
a096"Bright, shining, luminous, resplendent." (OED)
a097Describing the sylphs
a098"A colouring matter, dye, pigment; spec. a dye used as a cosmetic." "tincture, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.
a099Variant spelling of "dyes" "dye, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.
a100"A bird's wing; esp. (chiefly poet. and rhetorical) the wing of a bird in flight. Also: the terminal segment of a bird's wing, bearing the primary flight feathers." "pinion, n.2." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 1 December 2015.
a101"paint, dye, or colour azure or bright blue." "ˈazure, v." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 1 December 2015.
a102Referring to Aerial.
a103This is where Aerial begins speaking.
a104"The orbit of a planet or other celestial object; (also) the plane of the orbit." "orb, n.1." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 1 December 2015.
a105Rainbow
a106"a. The soil of the earth, regarded as the source of vegetable products; earth, land. Now only poet. or rhet. b. A portion of land assigned to a clergyman as part of his benefice." "glebe, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 1 December 2015.
a107Referring to the most important of the sylphs.
a108In this case, the poem is referring to Belinda.
a109Meaning to save her makeup (and beauty) from getting blown by the wind or other outside forces.
a110"Of, pertaining or belonging to, the springtime; appropriate to the spring; spring-like: Of weather, scenery, etc." "vernal, adj. (and n.)." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 1 December 2015.
a111This is referring to the "Fair"
a112"‘An ornamental appendage to the skirt of a lady's dress, consisting of a strip gathered and sewed on by its upper edge around the skirt, and left hanging and waving.’ (Welsh)" "flounce, n.2." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.
a113Variant spelling of 'Furbelow', "A piece of stuff pleated and puckered on a gown or petticoat; a flounce; the pleated border of a petticoat or gown." "furbelow, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.
a114Belinda
a115"Concealed, covered, hidden." "wrapped, adj." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 1 December 2015.
a116"An ancient Roman female divinity, the moon-goddess, patroness of virginity and of hunting." "Diana, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 1 December 2015.
a117"A textile fabric woven with a pattern of raised figures, originally in gold or silver." "brocade, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 1 December 2015.
a118Again placing spiritual matters on a par with earthly ones.
a119The nymphs' names are invented, each derived from a word related to the object entrusted to it. "Zephyretta", from 'Zephyr', has care of the breeze-producing fan.
a120"Brillante", from 'brilliant', is entrusted with the earrings.
a121"Momentilla", from 'moment', has charge of the pocket-watch.
a122"Crispissa", from 'crisp', has charge of the two precise curls of hair.
a123"A strip of whalebone, esp. used as stiffening in women's stays, dresses, etc." "whalebone, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 1 December 2015.
a124"A strip of whalebone, esp. used as stiffening in women's stays, dresses, etc." "whalebone, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 1 December 2015.
a125"Said of the obstruction: To block, choke up." "stop, v." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 1 December 2015.
a125"A vessel of a small or moderate size used for holding liquids; in later use spec., a small glass bottle" "vial, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 1 December 2015.
a127Bodkin, n. "A needle-like instrument with a blunt knobbed point, having a large (as well as a small) eye, for drawing tape or cord through a hem, loops, etc." "bodkin, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.
a128"An ointment for the skin or hair; = pomade" "pomatum, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.
a129A 'styptic' is a kind of medicine used to contract organic tissue (for example, to stop a cut bleeding), frequently made out of 'alum', a type of mineral salt. "styptic, adj. and n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015. http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/192368 "alum, n.1." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015. http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/5869
a130"Ixion, in Greek legend, murdered his father-in-law and could find no one to purify him until Zeus did so. Ixion abused his pardon by trying to seduce Zeus’s wife, Hera. Zeus, to punish him, bound him on a fiery wheel, which rolled unceasingly through the air or, according to the more common tradition, in the underworld." "Ixion | Greek Mythology." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. Nov. 2015.
a131Compares being trapped in the grinder of a coffee mill to the mythological figure Ixion, who was fixed to a fire wheel spinning in the air of the underworld forever.
a132This is referring to the hot coffee in the grinder/pot.
a133Aerial
a134Belinda
a135This "event" is the Baron executing his plan to obtain her hair.
a135Mead is a poetic term for meadow. "mead, n.2." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 1 December 2015.
a137The Norton Anthology, 9th edition, states that Pope alludes to "Hampton Court, the royal palace, about fifteen miles up the Thames from London.” Pope, Alexander. “The Rape of the Lock.” The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Gen. ed. Stephen Greenblatt. 9th ed. Vol. C. New York: Norton, 2012. 2694. Print.
a138Queen Anne, a Stuart monarch who reigned over Great Britain and Ireland from 1702-1714. "Anne". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2015. Web. 01 Dec. 2015 http://www.britannica.com/biography/Anne-queen-of-Great-Britain-and-Ireland.
a139Ombre was a popular three-player card game similar to modern Bridge. Each game can have nine rounds (“tricks”). The most straightforward way to win is by taking five tricks (drawing the highest-ranked card in each round), after which the game ends. The game begins with an auction to decide the trump suit. The highest-bidding player is the “ombre” (from the Spanish “hombre”), and the other two play against her while trying to ensure their individual successes. The penalty enacted on each of the two non-ombres is greater if the ombre wins than if the other non-ombre wins. Similarly, the ombre will lose more if either of the two gains five tricks than if no one has won five at the end of nine rounds. Gibbs, Alban George Henry. The Game of Ombre. London: privately printed, 1874, 3rd edition (expanded) 1902. Print.
a141The matadores (spadillio, manillio, and basto) are the three highest-ranking cards in the trump suit. Belinda controls all three. Gibbs, Alban George Henry. The Game of Ombre. London: privately printed, 1874, 3rd edition (expanded) 1902. Print.
a142This is not a description of Belinda’s hand of cards, but rather imagines the illustrations in the deck marching into battle on the "velvet plain" of the card table.
a143For reference, Belinda’s starting hand is made up of spadillio, manillio, basto, the king of spades, the king and queen of hearts, and the 5 and 4 of diamonds. The Baron begins the game with the king of clubs, the jack, 7, 5, and 3 of spades (the trump suit), the king, queen, and jack of diamonds, and the ace of hearts. Belinda and the Baron both have extremely strong hands, while the third character has no strong cards. Gibbs, Alban George Henry. The Game of Ombre. London: privately printed, 1874, 3rd edition (expanded) 1902. Print.
a144Belinda chooses the trump suit (which would be decided by an auction––I.e., whoever bet the most on that game). Gibbs, Alban George Henry. The Game of Ombre. London: privately printed, 1874, 3rd edition (expanded) 1902. Print.
a145These lines describe Belinda’s taking the first four tricks of the game with her four strongest cards. (Players discard the played cards and replace each with one drawn randomly from the stock pile.) Gibbs, Alban George Henry. The Game of Ombre. London: privately printed, 1874, 3rd edition (expanded) 1902. Print.
a146In the following stanzas, the Baron begins to threaten Belinda’s winning streak. He wins tricks five through eight, tying their scores.
a147Pope refers to the card's illustration. Pope, Alexander. “The Rape of the Lock.” The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Gen. ed. Stephen Greenblatt. 9th ed. Vol. C. New York: Norton, 2012. 2694. Print.
a148Codille denotes losing the game and the penalty that comes with it. Belinda must either win trick 9, or hope that the third, useless player does, in order to avoid a loss. Gibbs, Alban George Henry. The Game of Ombre. London: privately printed, 1874, 3rd edition (expanded) 1902. Print.
a149A trick is a round. As explained above, a game consists of nine tricks; whoever takes five wins the game. These lines describe Belinda’s taking the first four tricks of the game with her four strongest cards. (Players discard the played cards and replace each with one drawn randomly from the stock pile.) Gibbs, Alban George Henry. The Game of Ombre. London: privately printed, 1874, 3rd edition (expanded) 1902. Print.
a150The ace is the Baron’s card, which is inferior to Belinda’s king of hearts, although neither is aware of this until the cards are played. These lines describe Belinda’s taking the first four tricks of the game with her four strongest cards. (Players discard the played cards and replace each with one drawn randomly from the stock pile.) Gibbs, Alban George Henry. The Game of Ombre. London: privately printed, 1874, 3rd edition (expanded) 1902. Print.
a151For coffee
a152Coffee beans
a153Coffee grinder
a154Japan: "work varnished and raised in gold and colours" according to Johnson's dictionary Johnson, Samuel. "Japan (noun)." Japan (noun). A Dictionary of the English Language: A Digital Edition of the 1755 Classic by Samuel Johnson. Web. 30 Nov. 2015.
a155Nisus, king of Megara, was at war against Crete, but it was decreed by fate that his kingdom would be safe as long as a purple lock of hair remained on his head. His daughter Scylla fell in love with the king of Crete, Minos, and cut off her father's purple lock to give to him. Minos rejected the gift, and both Nisus and Scylla turned into birds.
a156It is interesting that Belinda becomes vulnerable to the Baron's attack when sniffing coffee fumes, because many women in the late 17th century objected to their husbands drinking coffee. Some of them helped create the Women’s Petition Against Coffee in 1674. "London's Coffee Houses." London's Coffee Houses. Http://www.history.co.uk/, 21 June 2014. Web. 30 Nov. 2015.
a157Small flower bouquet
a158Latin for scissors
a159A reference to John Milton's Paradise Lost, in which Satan is injured in the war in heaven when a sword "Passed through him, but th' Ethereal substance closed/ Not long divisible" (Paradise Lost 6.326-31). Lynch, Jack. "The Rape of the Lock, Edited by Jack Lynch." Pope, Rape of the Lock. Rutgers University. Web. 30 Nov. 2015.
a160In 18th-century England, the wealthy kept many kinds of pets, including monkeys. The lower classes sometimes kept performing monkeys, which could earn them extra money. Olsen, Kirstin. *Daily Life in 18th-century England. *Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1999. Google Books. Google. Web. 30 Nov. 2015.
a161In ancient Greece, laurel wreaths were worn as a symbol of victory or honor.
a162Secret Memoirs and Manners of Several Persons of Quality, of Both Sexes, from the New Atalantis, an Island in the Mediterranean, published in 1709, was a scandalous book by Delarivier Manley. With its salacious details of politicians' private lives, the story satirizes the corruption of the aristocracy Conway, Alison Margaret. *Private Interests: Women, Portraiture, and the Visual Culture of the English Novel, 1709-1791. *Toronto: U of Toronto, 2001. Google Books. Google. Web. 30 Nov. 2015.
a163Probably refers to certain religious holidays taking place during Lent and Advent, periods of time in which Bishops were obligated to take special care of their parishes Phillimore, Robert. The Ecclesiastical Law of the Church of England. Vol. 1. London: H. Sweet, 1873. Google Books. Google. Web. 30 Nov. 2015.
a164The literary devices of anaphora and juxtaposition are employed here in order to heighten the essentially farcical nature of this passage, for the triviality of Belinda's preoccupation is merely accentuated when the loss of her beloved lock is compared to the various unhappy instances of the vicissitudes of life adduced in this passage.
a165An organ which was supposed to cause melancholy, irascibility, spite, ill humor, etc. Hysteria (or hypochondriac vapours) in women was attributed to the spleen. Pope, Alexander. "The Rape of the Lock." Eighteenth-Century Resources. Ed. Jack Lynch. Rutgers University. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. https://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/rapelock.html. Blackmore, Richard. A Treatise of the Spleen and Vapours: Or, Hypocondriacal and Hysterical Affections. London: Doddington, 1725. Print. Umbriel's journey through the Cave of Spleen is analogous to the journeys, fraught with many perils, which Aeneas (Vergil's The Aeneid) and Odysseus (Homer's The Odyssey) made through the underworld
a166In other words, a building. Pope, Alexander. "The Rape of the Lock." Eighteenth-Century Resources. Ed. Jack Lynch. Rutgers University. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. https://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/rapelock.html.
a167"Lampooning" in 17th and 18th century England was a scathing form of satire that attacked a specific person's appearance. It originates from the French word "lampons," which means "let's drink," and Alexander Pope himself lampooned a fellow writer, Joseph Addison, in his work "An Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot." The form fell into disuse soon after this time but the term "lampoon" still refers to an insult directed at a specific person or institution. Werlock, Abby H. P. The Facts on File Companion to the American Short Story. 2nd ed. New York NY: Facts On File, 2010. Print.
a168"rolling Spires"=spirals Cummings, Michael. "The Rape of the Lock." Cummings Study Guides. Michael J. Cummings, 2005. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. http://www.cummingsstudyguides.net/Guides2/Pope.html.
a169A reference to Elysium/Elysian Fields/Elysian Plain, where mortals favored by the gods for their rectitude were sent to dwell after they had departed from the land of the living. Elysium was originally the exclusive province of the heroes who had acquired immortality from the gods by virtue of their intrepidity. Elysian in the context of this passage means "like paradise." "Elysium." Myths Encyclopedia. Advameg, Inc. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. http://www.mythencyclopedia.com/Dr-Fi/Elysium.html. Pope, Alexander. "The Rape of the Lock." Eighteenth-Century Resources. Ed. Jack Lynch. Rutgers University. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. https://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/rapelock.html.
a170According to Johnson..."A small earthen boiler." Pope, Alexander. "The Rape of the Lock." Eighteenth-Century Resources. Ed. Jack Lynch. Rutgers University. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. https://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/rapelock.html.
a171A reference to the automatons (or "tripods"), twenty in all, fashioned with rivets and gold wheels by the lame god Vulcan in his workshop so that they might be dispatched whenever the gods congregated at Mt. Olympus, returning to the workshop afterwards to be at the beck and call of the god. From Book XVIII of Homer's The Iliad. Pope, Alexander. "The Rape of the Lock." Eighteenth-Century Resources. Ed. Jack Lynch. Rutgers University. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. https://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/rapelock.html. Homer. The Iliad. Trans. Richmond Lattimore. Chicago: U of Chicago, 1951. Print.
a172Goose-pie. Below is a note which Pope made: "Alludes to a real fact, a Lady of distinction imagin'd herself in this condition." "Here living Teapots stand....call aloud for Corks." Apparently Pope was inspired in this conceit (itself a reference to the perceived hallucinogenic properties of the nervous disorders associated with the spleen) by The Metamorphoses by Ovid (translated by Dryden), the depiction of melancholia (then attributed to a splenetic temperament) in The Spleen (1709) by Anne Finch, Countess of Winchilsea (1661-1720), and various medical histories documenting the fanciful afflictions from which "people of quality" suffered. Deutsch, Helen. Resemblance & Disgrace: Alexander Pope and the Deformation of Culture. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1996. Print. "Anne Finch, Countess of Winchilsea." Poetry Foundation. Poetry Foundation. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. http://www.poetryfoundation.org/bio/anne-finch. Pope, Alexander. "The Rape of the Lock." Eighteenth-Century Resources. Ed. Jack Lynch. Rutgers University. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. https://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/rapelock.html.
a174A parodic reference to the golden bough bore by Aeneas during his journey, accompanied by the Cumaean Sibyl, through the underworld. Aeneas, having been guided by a pair of doves to a place in a forest where the golden bough had been long obscured from the sight of man, had plucked the golden bough in order to obtain safe passage through the underworld. He and the Sibyl were only ferried to the underworld across the Acheron River once hoary Charon, the ferryman, saw that Aeneas had miraculously obtained the elusive golden bough. Pope, Alexander. "The Rape of the Lock." Eighteenth-Century Resources. Ed. Jack Lynch. Rutgers University. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. https://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/rapelock.html. "Golden Bough." Myths Encyclopedia. Advameg, Inc. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. http://www.mythencyclopedia.com/Fi-Go/Golden-Bough.html.
a175According to Johnson, "A slight passion; a slight fit of anger." Pope, Alexander. "The Rape of the Lock." Eighteenth-Century Resources. Ed. Jack Lynch. Rutgers University. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. https://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/rapelock.html.
a176A citrus-based brandy. In this case, lemon and citron rinds have been used to distill the brandy. Pope, Alexander. "The Rape of the Lock." Eighteenth-Century Resources. Ed. Jack Lynch. Rutgers University. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. https://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/rapelock.html. Cummings, Michael. "The Rape of the Lock." Cummings Study Guides. Michael J. Cummings, 2005. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. http://www.cummingsstudyguides.net/Guides2/Pope.html.
a177The quintessential symbol of a cuckold. Pope, Alexander. "The Rape of the Lock." Eighteenth-Century Resources. Ed. Jack Lynch. Rutgers University. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. https://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/rapelock.html.
a178In other words, constipated. Pope, Alexander. "The Rape of the Lock." Eighteenth-Century Resources. Ed. Jack Lynch. Rutgers University. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. https://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/rapelock.html.
a179A reference to Book X of Homer's The Odyssey in which Odysseus receives a bag of winds from Aeolus after having been hospitably entertained by him for at least a month at his palace at the Island of Aeolia. Aeolus had been given command of the Anemoi by the gods, and so he hoped to lay the winds, especially Zephyrus (the west wind), at Odysseus's disposal so that he might be able to reach Ithaca at last. However, Odysseus's men thought that the bag contained silver and gold, and so their greed induced them to open the sack and thus release the winds in all of their tumult. Thus Odysseus, who had fallen asleep at the rudder with Ithaca within sight, and his crew were driven right back to the Island of Aeolia. Pope, Alexander. "The Rape of the Lock." Eighteenth-Century Resources. Ed. Jack Lynch. Rutgers University. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. https://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/rapelock.html. Homer. The Odyssey of Homer. Trans. Richmond Lattimore. New York: Harper & Row, 1967. Print.
a180330 BC: The name of a mythological Amazonian queen who, accompanied by 300 warriors, supposedly sought out Alexander the Great, who was then in Hyrcania, a satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire (which he was bent on subjugating), in order to sleep with him so that she might bear his child. Alexander consented and gave his men a thirteen-day furlough so that he might attempt to impregnate Thalestris. Eventually Thalestris believed that she had conceived, and so Alexander and his men departed for Parthia. The realm of Thalestris encompassed the area between the River Phasis and the Caucasus. Lendering, Jona. "Hyrcania." Livius. Livius.org, 1996. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. http://www.livius.org/articles/place/hyrcania/ Marcus. "Thalestris, the Amazon Queen." Pothos.org. Pothos.org. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. http://www.pothos.org/content/index.php?page=thalestris-the-amazon-queen. Pope, Alexander. "The Rape of the Lock." Eighteenth-Century Resources. Ed. Jack Lynch. Rutgers University. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. https://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/rapelock.html.
a181A reference to the three chthonic goddesses-Alecto (endless), Megaera (jealous rage), and Tisiphone (punishment)-who were the scourges of murderers, especially those who had killed their kith and kin. They relentlessly pursued the casualties of their wrath with insanity and other forms of torture (carried out with instruments such as whips, torches, and cups of venom) in their quest to uphold justice. A trio of loathsome hags with skin the color of coal, the wings of bats, and snakes in their hair. Known as the Erinyes. "Furies." Myths Encyclopedia. Advameg, Inc. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. http://www.mythencyclopedia.com/Fi-Go/Furies.html.
a182A term for intense anger, in this case related to Belinda's anger related to the severing of the lock of her hair which she reacts to as if it is a mortal sin or a action motivated by wrath. "Ire." - Memidex Dictionary/thesaurus. 23 June 2013. Web. 7 Dec. 2015. .
a183This refers to the overall emptiness of Hampton Court, a palace in London at which Henry VIII lived during his reign. Because it is so empty and cold inside, it not only literally echoes Belinda's words but also echoes the pain and emptiness she feels inside. King, Christa Knellwolf. A Contradiction Still: Representations of Women in the Poetry of Alexander Pope. Manchester, UK: Manchester UP :, 1998. Print.
a184Papers commonly used to curl a woman's hair that were fastened to her head with heated lead. Black, Joseph Laurence. The Broadview Anthology of British Literature. 2nd ed. Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview, 2011. Print.
a185A thin crown that circled a lady's head to assist in the process of curling her hair. Black, Joseph Laurence. The Broadview Anthology of British Literature. 2nd ed. Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview, 2011. Print.
a186Likely referring to the heated lead used with the paper durance used to curl women's hair in 18th century England. Black, Joseph Laurence. The Broadview Anthology of British Literature. 2nd ed. Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview, 2011. Print.
a187A "fop" in this context refers to a man overly concerned with his outer appearance to the point that it bothers other people. It originated in this context in 17th century England to refer to a generally foolish, effeminate man incapable of engaging in intellectual conversation. In this line, the definition of a "fop" is exemplified by the fact that they and ladies are both jealous of Belinda's hair. "Definition of Fop." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 5 Nov. 2015. Web. 13 Nov. 2015. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fop.
a188The term "toast" originated as a term for a lady for whose health a group of people dedicated a drink, similar to how people propose toasts today. This lady's name was seen as adding a special flavor to the drink in question, similar in function to a spiced toast that would have been a common feature in alcoholic drinks at the time. "Toast." Toast: Definition of Toast in Oxford Dictionary (American English) (US). Web. 13 Nov. 2015. http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/toast.
a189Another word for Ring Road in London's Hyde Park. A "circus" in this context also refers to a roundabout on a London road. "West End of London." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 11 Nov. 2015. Web. 5 Nov. 2015. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_End_of_London. Black, Joseph Laurence. The Broadview Anthology of British Literature. 2nd ed. Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview ;, 2011. Print.
a190A reference to the Bow Bells of St Mary-le-Bow, a church which was located in the Cheapside district of London. Apparently this location was regarded as unfashionable. Power, Matthew. "Bow Bells." St Mary-le-Bow Church. St Mary-le-Bow. Web. 3 Dec. 2015. http://www.stmarylebow.co.uk/#/bow-bells/4535373284. Pope, Alexander. "The Rape of the Lock." Eighteenth-Century Resources. Ed. Jack Lynch. Rutgers University. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. https://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/rapelock.html.
a191High society gentlemen of this time generally stored their "snuff," or sniffing tobacco, in jeweled "snuff boxes" made from precious materials such as porcelain, ebony, and the afore-mentioned amber. These snuff boxes played a large role in defining their gentlemenly statuses to the rest of the world, so a man of Sir Plume's societal stature would be understandably vain about having an amber snuff box. English Illustrated Magazine 1903. Print.
a192A thin walking stick (especially if crafted from agates and marbles) which was often luxuriously adorned with precious stones, silver, gold, or amber, and was colored or semi-opaquely tinted. Pope, Alexander. "The Rape of the Lock." Eighteenth-Century Resources. Ed. Jack Lynch. Rutgers University. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. https://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/rapelock.html. Chambers, William, and Robert Chambers, comps. Chambers's Journal of Popular Literature, Science and Arts. Vol. XIX. London: W. & R. Chambers, 1863. Print.
a193A commonly used word in 18th century English literature. One source identifies it as standing for "Zounds," short for "God's Wounds," which was a curse word used in a similar context to "damn". "Hydrargyrum." Genius. Web. 8 Nov. 2015. http://genius.com/Hydrargyrum.
a194The "Pox" in this case likely refers to smallpox, which in 18th century was a rampant epidemic in England and the rest of Europe that killed, on average, 400,000 people annually. Riedel, Stefan. "Edward Jenner and the History of Smallpox and Vaccination." Proceedings (Baylor University. Medical Center). Baylor Health Care System, 18 Jan. 2005. Web. 8 Dec. 2015. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1200696/.
a195This passage directly alludes to a passage from Homer in which Achilles cuts off a lock of his own hair to mourn and commemorate the death of Patroclus. This leads many of his men to follow suit and cut off locks of their own hair to place, and Achilles then cuts off another lock of his hair that he had been growing for the river Spercheus to make his trip home safer. This continues the trend throughout the poem of using military conquest language to describe the event of cutting off a lock of Belinda's hair. "Bk XXIII:1-53 Achilles Again Mourns Patroclus." Homer: The Iliad Book XXIII. 28 Aug. 2009. Web. 8 Nov. 2015. http://www.poetryintranslation.com/PITBR/Greek/Iliad23.htm#_Toc239246468.
a196This use of the word "gnome" could refer to the fact that in 18th century Britain, wealthy aristocrats often hired real people to live in a corner of their lavish gardens as hermits or "gnomes." These gnomes were often poor people in society who needed a place to live, and for the rich, hiring gnomes for their gardens helped justify and add purpose to their great wealth. Osborne, Hannah. "18th Century Aristocrats Hired People to Live as Hermits in Their Gardens." International Business Times RSS. 19 Dec. 2013. Web. 8 Nov. 2015. http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/18th-century-aristocrats-hired-people-live-hermits-their-gardens-1429663.
a197The same Hampton Court, the large palace in London that famously was the residence of King Henry VIII, to which the earlier line about "Hampton's Echos" refers. "Hampton Court Palace." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 2 Dec. 2015. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hampton_Court_Palace.
a198May be a reference to the chariot driven by Helios (whose identity was later subsumed into that of Apollo), the god of the sun and a Titan, in order to mark the waxing and waning of daylight. He was complemented by his sisters, Eos and Selene, who personified the Dawn and the Moon, respectively. "Helios." Greek Mythology. GreekMythology.com. Web. 3 Dec. 2015. http://www.greekmythology.com/Other_Gods/Helios/helios.html.
a199A black tea that originated in China's Buyi hills, for which it is named, and was of relatively low quality. "Definition of Bohea in English:." Bohea: Definition of Bohea in Oxford Dictionary (American English) (US). Web. 8 Nov. 2015. http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/bohea.
a200A small and rectangular (at times oval) box with beauty patches, which were worn by ladies of fashion during the 18th century so that the fairness of their skin might be accentuated. A patch box was bejeweled and made of gold, and could also be painted/enameled with "amorous scenes." A patch could have the appearance of a star, an animal, a insect, a figure, a crescent, or a spot. The location of a patch also contributed to its signification. "Patch Box." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 3 Dec. 2015. http://www.britannica.com/topic/patch-box.
a201"China" in this context refers to porcelain dishes that came via trade routes from China. These trade routes between China and England first began to flourish during the 18th century, and many rich English citizens were obsessed with obtaining as many "exotic" Chinese goods as they could to show off their wealth. Chang, Elizabeth. "The Chinese Taste in Eighteenth-Century England." Eighteenth-Century Fiction 25 (2012): 248-50. University of Toronto Press. Web. 8 Dec. 2015.
a202Refers to a parrot which Belinda had for a pet. http://www.cummingsstudyguides.net/Guides2/Pope.html
a203Jove, also known as Jupiter, was the king of the Roman gods. He is the roman equivalent to Zeus. Source: http://www.britannica.com/topic/Jupiter-Roman-god
a204The only reason the Baron did not listen to her "Tears" was the interference of Fate and Jove drawing connections to the gods interference in human affairs in mythological tales.
a205In the Aeneid by Virgil, Aeneas, the lover of Dido, queen of Carthage, is told by Zeus he must leave Italy because of fate and as a last effort Dido sends her sister Anna to persuade him to stay in Italy but fails. Source: Virgil, and Philip R. Hardie. Aeneid. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1994. Print.
a206Used to stiffen various articles of fashionable clothing, but also in the frames of military helmets. "Utilitarian Uses." Baleen (whale-bone) uses. University of Aberdeen, 2002. Web. 1 December, 2015 http://www.scran.ac.uk/packs/exhibitions/learning_materials/webs/40/utilitarian.htm
a207Homer makes the gods fight in his tales similar to the way Pope forces the characters in the poem to fight.
a208Titan god of warcraft in Greek Mythology Atsma, Aaron J. "Pallas." Theoi Project, n.d. 1 December, 2015 http://www.theoi.com/Titan/TitanPallas.html Could also refer to Athena, goddess of wisdom.
a209Roman god of war. Source: "Mars". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2015. Web. 07 Dec. 2015 http://www.britannica.com/topic/Mars-Roman-god.
a210In Greek Mythology, Mother of Apollo and Diana, Mistress of Jupiter "The Legend of Latona." The Latona Foundation. Chateau de Versailles, n.d. Web. 1 December 2015 http://latone.chateauversailles.fr/en/page/the-latona-fountain/the-legend-of-latona
a211In Greek mythology, Hermes is known as the messenger god. He was also a god of trade, thieves, travelers, sports, athletes, border crossings, and a guide to the Underworld. Source: "Hermes". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2015. Web. 07 Dec. 2015 http://www.britannica.com/topic/Hermes-Greek-mythology.
a212A lantern or candlestick with a screen to protect the light from the wind, and a handle to carry Source: "sconce, n.1." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.
a213Pope adds in a footnote: "Minerva in like manner, during the Battle of Ulysses with the Suitors in Odyss. perches on a beam of the roof to behold it." Source: Pope, Alexander, and Adolphus William Ward. The Poetical Works of Alexander Pope. London: Macmillan, 1907. Print.
a214An old term for a courtier. In the 18th century, the term also meant a man who was concerned with his dress and appearance. Source: "beau, adj. and n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 7 December 2015.
a215One who fancies himself a wit "witling, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, December 2015. Web. 8 December 2015. http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/229709?redirectedFrom=witling#eid
a216Character in Wycherley's play "Love in a Wood." A witless suitor who is tricked into marrying a pregnant woman. http://www.enotes.com/topics/love-wood/characters
a217Reference to Sir Fopling Flutter, a character in George Etherege's play the Man of Mode https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Man_of_Mode
a218Pope adds a footnote: "The Words of a Song in the Opera of Camilla" Source: Pope, Alexander, and Adolphus William Ward. The Poetical Works of Alexander Pope. London: Macmillan, 1907. Print.
a219in Greek Mythology, name for the river god and his river, which flowed from Phrygia to the Aegean Sea. Stewart, Michael. "People, Places & Things: Meander", Greek Mythology: From the Iliad to the Fall of the Last Tyrant. n.p., n.d. Web. 1 December 2015 http://messagenetcommresearch.com/myths/ppt/Meander_1.html
a220The name gives insight to the character. A plume is an arrangement of feathers used by a bird for display or worn by a person for ornament. Plume is also used as a verb 'to plume oneself' synonymous to the action of preening at one's looks. Source: "plume, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.
a221Brave, capable, and determined, also marked by fearless resolution. Source: "doughty, adj." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.
a222Jove is a god of balance presiding over laws and social order. These lines are referencing in the Iliad,"the father of all balanced his golden scales and placed a doom in each of them". Zeus, the Greek version of Jove used his scales to balance Hector and Achilles and determine their fate. Sources: Homer, Barbara Graziosi, and Johannes Haubold. Iliad. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2010. Print. "Jove". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2015. Web. 07 Dec. 2015 http://www.britannica.com/topic/Jupiter-Roman-god.
a223Jove weighs the battle in the men's favor, but Belinda overcomes this by tossing snuff in the Baron's face.
a224Allusion to their god-like state of being.
a225"to die" is a common euphemism for orgasm. It was a common poetical term in the 16th and 17th centuries. Source: "die, v.1." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.
a226A fine-ground tobacco, intended for consumption through inhalation or sniffed into the nose.
a227In reference to ancient Greek philosophy: a hypothetical particle, minute and indivisible, held to be one of the ultimate particles of matter. Source: "atom, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, December 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.
a228A man-like, heroic woman "virago, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, December 2015. Web. 8 December 2015. http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/223704?redirectedFrom=virago#eid
a229Pope adds in a footnote: "In imitation of the progress of Agamemnon's sceptre in Homer" Source: Pope, Alexander, and Adolphus William Ward. The Poetical Works of Alexander Pope. London: Macmillan, 1907. Print.
a230a finger ring bearing a seal; signet ring Source: "seal, n.2." OED Online. Oxford University Press, December 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.
a231archaic term for grandmother Source: "grandam, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, December 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.
a232In Shakespeare's Othello, the titular character is tricked into believing his wife has been unfaithful by his ensign Iago, who plants her handkerchief in the room of Othello's lieutenant, Cassio
a233acts of charity Source: "alms, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, December 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.
a234fabric forming a narrow strip or band; ribbon Source: "riband, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, December 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.
a235Thick books of meaningless philosophy through the use of clever but unsound reasoning, especially in relation to moral questions. Source: "casuistry, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.
a236In popular myth, Rome was founded by Romulus, who ruled for 37 years and then mysteriously disappeared. Proculus swore that he saw Romulus ascending to heaven. http://www.crystalinks.com/romulus.html
a237Berenice was the wife of Ptolemy III. During battle, Berenice dedicates a lock of her hair to Aphrodite as an offering for Ptolemy's safe return. After the offering, the lock vanished and was transformed into a constellation, now called Coma Berenices. "Coma Berenices". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2015. Web. 08 Dec. 2015 http://www.britannica.com/topic/Coma-Berenices. Hevelius, Johannes. a costellazione del Boote e della Chioma di Berenice. 1690. Wikimedia Commons. Wikimedia Foundation. Web. 7 December 2015. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hev_09_fig_F_bootes_coma_berenices_et_mons_maenalus.jpg
a238Fashionable or high society Source: "beau monde, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 8 December 2015.
a239A "shaded walk serving as a promenade," generalized from The Mall, a name of a broad, tree-lined promenade in St. James's Park, London.
a240Body of water in St. James' Park Shmoop Editorial Team. "The Rape of the Lock Allusions." Shmoop. Shmoop University, Inc., 11 Nov. 2008. Web. 1 Dec. 2015. http://www.shmoop.com/the-rape-of-the-lock/allusions.html
a241John Partridge (1644 - c. 1714) an astrologer known for publishing almanacs with (generally incorrect) yearly predictions of deaths of notable individuals like the King of France (during a time where France and England were at war). Source: McIntosh, Christopher. A Short History of Astrology. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1994. Print.
a242i.e., the telescope, developed by Galileo Galilei
a243Likely a reference to the King of France, Louis the XIV at the time; also notable because Louis XIV and England had long been at war.
a244General note: "Sphere" is pronounced to rhyme with "Hair" Source: Ellis, Alexander John, William Salesbury, Johann Adreas Schmeller, Alexander Barclay. On Early English Pronunciation. London: Pub. for the Philological Society by Asher, by Trübner, 1869. 965. Print.
a245Referring to Pope himself. He created this poem that will make Arabella's hair live on forever.