The soveraignty and goodness of God, together, with the faithfulness of his promises displayed; being a narrative of the captivity and restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson
By Mary Rowlandson

Transcription, correction, editorial commentary, and markup by faculty, librarians, and students at the University of Virginia, notably, Rachel Retica
    

Sources

Cambridge, Massachusetts : Printed by Samuel Green, 1682Mary Rowlandson's book was first published by the printer Samuel Green in 1682, whose press was in Cambridge, Massachusetts. No copy of the first edition is known to have survived, so modern texts are generally derived from the second edition, also printed in 1682. Our text is based on the transcription of that text done in 2011-2012 by the Text Creation Partnership; that the book was reprinted so quickly suggests that Rowlandson's work was popular and in high demand among readers in New England. The book was then reprinted by the London printer/bookseller, again in 1682, under the title A True History of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson. Other than the title, there are no significant differences between the London version and that published in New England a short while before. A fuller bibliographical record is in the English Short Title Catalogue: http://estc.bl.uk/R213983Ann Arbor, MI; Oxford, UK: Text Creation Partnership, 2011-12Text for this digital edition drawn from http://name.umdl.umich.edu/B09906.0001.001

Editorial Statements

Research informing these annotations draws on publicly-accessible resources, with links provided where possible. Annotations have also included common knowledge, defined as information that can be found in multiple reliable sources. If you notice an error in these annotations, please contact lic.open.anthology@gmail.com.

Original spelling and capitalization is retained, though the long s has been silently modernized and ligatured forms are not encoded.

Hyphenation has not been retained, except where necessary for the sense of the word.

Page breaks have been retained. Catchwords, signatures, and running headers have not. Where pages break in the middle of a word, the complete word has been indicated prior to the page beginning.

Materials have been transcribed from and checked against first editions, where possible. See the Sources section.


Citation

White, Mary. The soveraignty and goodness of God, together, with the faithfulness of his promises displayed; being a narrative of the captivity and restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson. , Printed by Samuel Green, 1682 . Literature in Context: An Open Anthology. http://anthologydev.lib.virginia.edu/work/Rowlandson/rowlandson-sovereignty. Accessed: 2024-07-17T13:27:11.055Z
[TP] THE Soveraignty &; Goodness
OF
GOD,
Together,
With the Faithfulness of His Promises
Displayed;
Being a
NARRATIVE
Of the Captivity and Restauration of
Mrs. Mary Rowlandson.
headnote

headnote Mary Rowlandson’s gripping account of her experience as a captive of native Americans was enormously popular in her own time and became widely influential as the paradigm for the “captivity narrative,” a genre that would have hundreds of examples over the next two centuries and would also help shape works like Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe. The book was originally printed in 1682, first in Massachusetts and then, quickly, in London as well, and was reprinted over and over again for the next century and more. For good reason. Rowlandson’s work taps into colonial fears about the indigenous population, Puritan conceptions of the relationship between the material world and the unseen world of the divine, and the perennial fears of all patriarchal cultures about women’s sexuality. Her experience is compelling and she writes vividly about it. Rowlandson was born Mary White in England in around 1637, and her family moved to the Massachusetts Bay Colony when she was in her early teens. She married Joseph Rowlandson, a Puritan minister, in the 1650s, and they moved to Lancaster, in central Massachusetts, which was then essentially frontier territory for the English colonial settlers. In 1675, the native American leader Metacomet, head of the Wampanoag confederation of indigeneous peoples, led a series of attacks on English settlements. The conflict that followed for the next three years is remembered by English-speaking historians as “Prince Philip’s War,” because “Philip” was the name that the English settlers used for Metacomet. Metacomet’s forces attacked Lancaster on the morning of February 11, 1675, killing thirteen people, including Rowlandson’s sister and her sister’s children, as well as her brother-in-law. The natives took twenty-four English settlers prisoner, including Rowlandson and her three children. (Rowlandson’s husband Joseph was at this moment in Boston, trying to secure appropriations from the Massachusetts legislature to strengthen Lancashire’s defenses against the Wampanoag.) Rowlandson’s six-year-old daughter Sarah died of wounds suffered in the fight. Mary and her surviving children were held captive for eleven weeks, where they were moved progressively further away from the colonial settlements, into what is now the state of Vermont. She was eventually ransomed with funds raised by women in Boston. Joseph Rowlandson died in 1678, and Mary moved with her children to Boston. She remarried there, and published the first edition of her Narrative with the Cambridge, Massachusetts printer Samuel Greene. This version was entitled The Sovereignty and Goodness of God, together with the Faithfulness of His Promises Displayed, being a Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson. It included a preface that was probably written by Increase Mather, the leading Puritan minister in the colonies at the time, and also the author of a narrative account of the war with Metacomet, A Brief History of the War with the Indians, in New-England, published in Boston in 1676. The first London edition of Rowlandson’s more personal account, printed in 1682, came out under the title A True History of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson. The fact that this book was printed three times in a single year on both sides of the Atlantic attests to its significance among the settler-colonists of North America and those in England who were interested in their experience. It also, however, reminds us of the partial and one-sided nature of this account; it is largely because Rowlandson, as a high-ranking woman in the colonial heirarchy, had access to publication that her story was recorded in this way. The native peoples who allied against the colonists preserved their version of the conflict in oral accounts that were, at best, fragmented in the course of the progressive destruction of their culture over the next years and decades. We have much still to learn and understand about the often-violent encounters in this period between European settler-colonists and the indigenous peoples of the land that still typically goes--strangely, if you think about it for a moment--by the name "New England." - [JOB]
Commended by her, to all that desires to
know the Lords doings to, and
dealings with Her.
Especially to her dear Children and Relations,
The second Addition Corrected and amended.
Written by Her own Hand for Her private Use, and now
made Publick at the earnest Desire of some Friends,
and for the benefit of the Afflicted.
Deut. 32.29 See now that I, even I am he, and there is no
God with me: I kill and I make alive, I wound and I heal
neither is there any can deliver out of my hand.

CAMBRIDGE:
Printed by Samuel Green, 1682
The Preface to the READER.preface preface Increase Mather (1639-1723), a Puritan minister, is widely considered to be the author of this preface. He was active in soliciting and collecting accounts of what English-speakers referred to as “King Philip’s War,” including his own “A Brief History of the Warr with the Indians in New England.” Mather also collected essays on miracles and illustrations of divine providence among New Englanders. It is likely that he encouraged Rowlandson to publish this account of her experience. - [RR]

IT was on Tuesday, Feb. 1. 1675.Tuesday Tuesday Rowlandson followed the Julian calendar for her dates. In the Georgian calendar, this would be February 1st, 1676. The same is true for the years given throughout the narrative. - [RR] in the afternoon, when the Narrhagansets Narrhagansets Narrhagansets Archeological evidence indicates that ancestors of the Narragansett people lived along what is now the southern New England coast for thousands of years. At their greatest extent, the tribe controlled most of what is now Rhode Island. In “King Philip’s War,” as the English-speakers termed it, the Narragansetts initially tried to stay neutral. They entered the conflict after the English attacked a large Narragansett and Wampanoag fortification in December of 1675. The war was possibly one of the bloodiest in American history; the Narragansetts were decimated, and the end of the war marked the end of most of their resistance to English settlement in Southern New England. - [RR] quarters (in or toward the Nipmug Nipmug Nipmug The Nipmuc nation once controlled a large territory in central Massachusetts. The town of Lancaster, where the Rowlandsons lived, was located in the Nipmuc territory of “Nashaway.” In “King Philip’s war,” the Nipmucs joined the Wampanoags and Narragansetts to combat the spreading influence of English settlers. In 1676, in a series of raids that included Lancaster, they forced the colonists to abandon the settlements on Nipmuc land. The English tried to settle again in 1701, abandoned the area a second time, and in a third attempt in 1713, formed a permanent settlement of what is now Worcester County. Nipmucs continue to live in and around Worcester today. - [RR] Country, whither they are now retyred for fear of the English Army lying in their own Country) were the second time beaten up by the Forces of the united Colonies, who thereupon soon betook themselves to flight, and were all the next day pursued by the English, some overtaken and destroyed, But on Thursday, Feb. 3. The English having now been six dayes on their march, from their head quarters, at Wickford, in the Narrhaganset Country, toward, and after the Enemy, and provision grown exceeding short, insomuch that they were fain to kill some Horses for the supply, especially of their Indian friends, they were necessitated to consider what was best to be done: And about noon (having hitherto followed the chase as hard as they might) a Councill was called, and though some few were of another mind, yet it was concluded by far the greater part of the Councill of War, that the Army should desist the pursuit, and retire: the Forces of Plimouth and the Bay to the next Town of the Bay, and Connecticut Forces to their own next Towns: Which determination was immediately put in execution. The consequent whereof, as it was not difficult to be foreseen by those that knew the causless enmity of these Barbarians, against the English, and the malicious and revengefull spirit of these Heathen: so it soon proved dismall.

The Narrhagansets were now driven quite from their own Countrey, and all their provisions there hoarded up, to which they durst not at present return, and being so numerous as they were, soon devoured those to whom they went, whereby both the one and other were now reduced to extream straits, and so necessitated to take the first and best opportunity for supply, and very glad, no doubt of such an opportunity as this, to provide for themselves, and make spoil of the English at once; and seeing themselves thus discharged of their pursuers, and a little refreshed after their flight, the very next week on Thurseday, Feb. 10. Thurseday Thurseday Forces made up of Narragansett, Wampanoag, and Nipmuc men attacked Lancaster on the morning of February 10th, 1676. They set fire to the town’s bridge and many homes, including the Rowlandson’s. The attackers secured food and supplies for the winter and took twenty-four captives, including Rowlandson and her three children. Lancaster was mostly abandoned after the raid. - [RR] they fell with mighty force and fury upon Lancaster: which small Town, remote from aid of others, and not being Gerisoned as it might, the Army being now come in, and as the time indeed required (the design of the Indians against that place being known to the English knownsome time before) known The English had been warned of plans to attack Lancaster by James Quannapohit and Job Kattenanit, two Nipmuc men reportedly converted to Christianity by Daniel Gookin. Even with this advance information, the English did not garrison the town quickly or effectively enough to counter the attack. Daniel Gookin went on to write an account of his efforts to convert native peoples in his “An historical account of the doings and sufferings of the Christian Indians in New England in the years 1675, 1676, 1677.” - [RR] was not able to make effectual resistance: but notwithstanding utmost endeavour of the Inhabitants, most of the buildings were turned into ashes; many People (Men, Women and Children) slain, and others captivated. The most solemn and remarkable part of this Trajedy, may that justly be reputed, which fell upon the Family of that reverend Servant of God, Mr. Joseph Rolandson, the faithfull Pastor of Christ in that place, who being gone down to the Councill of the Massachusets to seek aid for the defence of the place, at his return found the Town in flames, or smoke, his own house being ser on fire by the Enemy, through the disadvantage of a defective Fortification, and all in it consumed: his precious yoke-fellow, and dear Children, wounded and captivated (as the issue evidenced, and following Narrative declares) by these cruel and barbarous Salvages. A sad Catestrophe! Thus all things come alike to all: None knows either love or hatred by âll that is before him. It is no new thing for Gods precions ones to drink as deep as others, of the Cup of common Calamity: Take just Lot (yet captivated) for instance beside others. But it is not my business to dilate on these things, but only in few words introductively to preface to the following script, which is a Narrative of the wonderfully awfull, wise, holy, powerfull, and gracious providence of God, towards that worthy and precious Gentle woman, the dear Consort of the said Reverend Mr. Rowlandson, and her Children with her, as in casting of her into such a waterless pit, so in preserving, supporting, and carrying thorow so many such extream hazards, unspeakable difficulties and disconsolateness, and at last delivering her out of them all, and her surviving Children also. It was a strange and amazing dispensation, that the Lord should so afflict his precious Servant, and Hand maid: It was as strange, if not more, that he should so bear up the spirits of his Servant under such bereavments, and or his handmaid under such captivity, travels and hardships (much too hard for flesh and blood) as he did, and at length deliver and restore But he was their Saviour, who hath said, When thou passest through the Waters, I will be with thee, and thorough the Rivers, they shall not overflow thee: When thou walkest through the fire, thou shalt not be burnt, nor shall the flame kindle upon thee, Isa. 93. ver. 2. and again. He woundeth and his hands make whole. He shall deliver thee in troubles, yea in seven there shall no evil touch thee: In Famine he shall redeem thee from Death, and in War from the power of the sword, Job 5.18, 19, 20. Methinks this dispensation doth bear some resemblance to those of Joseph, David and Daniel; yea, and of the three Children too, the Stories whereof do represent us with the excellent textures of divine providence, curious pieces of divine work: and truly so doth this, and therefore not to be forgotten, but worthy to be exhibited to, and viewed, and pondered by all, that disdain not to consider the operation of his hands.

The works of the Lord (not only of Creation, but of Providence also, especially those that do more peculiarly concern his dear ones, that are as the Apple of his Eye, as the Signet upon His Hand, the Delight of his Eyes, and the Object of his tenderest Care and great, sought out of all those that have pleasure therein. And of these verily this is none of the least.

This Narrative was penned by the Gentlewoman her self, to be to her a memorandum of Gods dealing with her, that she might never forget, but remember the same, &; the severall circumstances thereof, all the dayes of her life. A pious scope which deserves both commendation and imitation: Some friends having obtained a sight of it, could not but be so much affected with the many passages of working providence discovered therein, as to judge it worthy of publick view, and altogether unmeet that such works of God should be hid from present and future Generations: And therefore though this Gentlewomans modesty would not thrust it into the Press, yet her gratitude unto God made her not hardly perswadable to let it pass, that God might have his due glory, and others benefit by it as well as her self. I hope by this time none will cast any reflection upon this Gentlewoman, on the score of this publication of her affliction and deliverance. If any should, doubtless they may be reckoned with the nine lepers,Lepers Lepers Luke 17:11-10. - [RR]of whom it is said, Were there not ten cleansed, where are the nine? but one returning to give God thanks. Let such further know that this was a dispensation of publick note, and of universall concernment, and so much the more, by how much the nearer this Gentlewoman stood related to that faithfull Servant of God, whose capacity and employment was publick in the house of God, and his name on that account of a very sweet savour in the Churches of Christ, who is there of a true Christian spirit, that did not look upon himself much concerned in this bereavment, this Captivity in the time thereof, and in his deliverance when it came, yea more then in many others; and how many are there, to whom so concerned, it will doubtless be a very acceptable thing to see the way of God with this Gentlewoman in the aforesaid dispensation, thus laid out and pourtrayed before their eyes.

To conclude whatever any coy phantasies may deem, yet it highly concerns those that have so deeply tasted, how good the Lord is, to enquire with David, What shall I render to the Lord for all his benefits to me. Psal. 116.12. He thinks nothing too great; yea, being sensible of his own disproportion to the due praises of God he cals in help. Oh, magnifie the Lord with me, let us exalt his Name together, Psal. 34.3 And it is but reason, that out praises should hold proportion with our prayers: and that as many hath helped together by prayer for the obtaining of his Mercy, so praises should be returned by many on this behalf; And forasmuch as not the generall but particular knowledge of things makes deepest impression upon the affections, this Narrative particularizing the several passages of this providence will nor a little conduce thereunto. And therefore holy David in order to the attainment of that end, accounts himself concerned to declare what God had done for his soul, Psal. 66.16. Come and hear, all ye that fear God, and I will declare what God hath done for my soul, i. e. for his life, see v. 9, 10. He holdeth our soul in life, and suffers not our feet to be moved, for thou our God hast proved us, thou hast tryed us, as silver is tryed. Life-mercies, are heart-affecting-mercies, of great impression and force, to enlarge pious hearts in the praises of God, so that such know not how but to talk of Gods acts, and to speak of and publish his wonderfull works. Deep troubles, when the waters come in unto thy soul, are wont to produce vowes: vowes must be paid, It is better not vow, than vow and not to pay. vow vow See Ecclesiastes 5:5-12. - [RR] I may say, that as none knows what it is to fight and pursue such an enemy as this, but they that have fought and pursued them: so none can imagine what it is to be captivated, and enslaved to such atheisticall proud, wild, cruel, barbarous, bruitish (in one word) diabolicall creatures as these, the worst of the heathen; nor what difficulties, hardships, hazards, sorrows, anxieties and perplexities do unavoidably wait upon such a condition, but those that have tryed it. No serious spirit then (especially knowing any thing of this Gentlewomans piety) can imagine but that the vows of God are upon her. Excuse her then if she come thus into publick, to pay those vows. Come and hear what she hath to say.

I am confident that no Friend of divine Providence will ever repent his time and pains, spent in reading over these sheets, but will judg them worth perusing again and again.

Hear Reader, you may see an instance of the Soveraignty of God, who doth what he will with his own as well as others; and who may say to him, What dost thou? Job Job See Job 9:12. - [RR] Here you may see an instance of the faith and patience of the Saints, under the most heart-sinking tryals; here you may see, the promises are breasts full of consolation, when all the world besides is empty, and gives nothing but sorrow. That God is indeed the supream Lord of the world, ruling the most unruly, weakening the most cruel and salvage, granting his People mercy in the sight of the unmercifull, curbing the lusts of the most filthy, holding the hands of the violent, delivering the prey from the mighty, and gathering together the out casts of Israel. Once and again you have heard, but hear you may see, that power belongeth unto God; that our God is the God of Salvation, and to him belong the issues from Death. That our God is in the Heavens, and doth what ever pleases him. Here you have Sampsons Riddle Sampson Sampson See Judges 14:14. - [RR] examplified, and that great promise, Rom. 8.28. verified, Out of the Eater comes forth meat, and sweetness out of the strong; The worst of evils working together for the best good. How evident is it that the Lord hath made this Gentlewoman a gainer by all this affliction, that she can say, 'tis good for her, yea better that she hath been, then that she should not have been, thus afflicted.

Oh how doth God shine forth in such things as these;

Reader, if thou gettest no good by such a Declaration as this, the fault must needs be thine own. Read therefore, Peruse, Ponder, and from hence lay up something from the experience of another, against thine own turn comes, that so thou also through patience and consolation of the Scripture mayest have hope.

1 A Narrative of the CAPTIVITY AND RESTAURATION OF Mrs. Mary Rowlandson.

ON the tenth of February 1675. Came the Indians with great numbers upon Lancaster: Their first coming was about Sun-rising; hearing the noise of some Guns, we looked out; several Houses were burning, and the Smoke ascending to Heaven. There were five persons taken in one house, the Father, and the Mother and a sucking Child, they knockt on the head; the other two they took and carried away alive. Their were two others, who being out of their Garison upon some occasion were set upon; one was knockt on the head, the other escaped: Another their was who running along was shot and wounded, and fell down; he pegged of them his life, promising them Money (as they told me) but they would not hearken to 2 him but knockt him in head, and stript him naked, and split open his Bowels. Another seeing many of the Indians about his Barn, ventured and went out, but was quickly shot down. There were three others belonging to the same Garison who were killed; the Indians getting up upon the roof of the Barn, had advantage to shoot down upon them over their Fortification. Thus these murtherous wretches went on, burning, and destroying before them,

At length they came and beset our own house, and quickly it was the dolefullest day that ever mine eyes saw. The House stood upon the edg of a hill; some of the Indians got behind the hill, others into the Barn, and others behind any thing that could shelter them; from all which places they shot against the House, so that the Bullets seemed to fly like hail; and quickly they wounded one man among us, then another, and then a third, About two hours (according to my observation, in that amazing time) they had been about the house before they prevailed to fire it (which they did with Flax and Hemp, which they brought out of the Barn, and there being no desence about the House, only two Flankers at two opposite corners, and one of them not finished) they fired it once, and one ventured out and quenched it, but they quickly fired it again, and that took. Now is that dreadfull hour come, that I have often heard of (in time of War, as it was the case of others) but now mine eyes see it. Some in our house were fighting 3 for their lives, others wallowing in their blood, the House on fire over our heads, and the bloody Heathen ready to knock us on the head, if we stired our: Now might we hear Mothers &; Children crying out for themselves, and one another, Lord, What shall we do? Then I took my Children (and one of my sisters, hers) to go forth and leave the house: but as soon as we came to the dore and appeared, the Indians shot so thick that the bulletts rattled against the House, as if one had taken an handfull of stones and threw them, so that we were fain to give back. We had six stout Dogs belonging to our Garrison, but none of them would stir, though another time, if any Indian had come to the door, they were ready to fly upon him and tear him down. The Lord hereby would make us the more to acknowledge his hand, and to see that our help is alwayes in him. But out we must go, the fire increasing, and coming along behind us, roaring, and the Indians gaping before us with their Guns, Spears and Hatchets to devour us. No sooner were we out of the House, but my Brother in Law (being before wounded, in defending the house, in or near the throat) fell down dead, wherat the Indians scornfully shouted, and hallowed, and were presently upon him, stripping off his cloaths, the bulletts flying thick, one went through my side, and the same (as would seem) through the bowels and hand of my dear Child in my arms. One of my elder Sisters Children, named William, had then his Leg broken, which the Indians perceiving, 4 they knockt him on head. Thus were we butchered by those merciless Heathen, standing amazed, with the blood running down to our heels. My eldest Sister being yet in the House, and seeing those wofull sights, the Infidels haling Mothers one way, and Children another, and some wallowing in their blood: and her elder Son telling her that her Son William was dead, and my self was wounded, she said, And, Lord let me dy with them; which was no sooner said, but she was struck with a Bullet, and fell down dead over the threshold. I hope she is reaping the fruit of her good labours, being faithfull to the service of God in her place. In her younger years she lay under much trouble upon spiritual accounts, till it pleased God to make that precious Scripture take hold of her heart, 2 Cor. 12.9. And be said unto me my Grace is sufficient for thee. More then twenty years after I have heard her tell how sweet and comfortable that place was to her, But to return: The Indians laid hold of us, pulling me on way, and the Children another, and said, Come go along with us; I told them they would kill me: they answered, If I were willing to go along with them, they would not hurt me.

Oh the dolefull sight that now was to behold at this House! Come, behold the works of the Lord, what dissolations he has made in the Earth. Psalm_46 Psalm_46 See Psalm 46:8-10. - [RR] Of thirty seven persons who were in this one House, none escaped either present death, or a bitter captivity, save only one, who might say as he. Job 1.15. And I only am escaped alone to tell the News. There 5 were twelve killed, some shot, some stab'd with their Spears, some knock'd down with their Hatchets. When we are in prosperity, Oh the little that we think of such dreadfull sights, and to see our dear Friends, and Relations ly bleeding out their heart-blood upon the ground. There was one who was chopt into the head with a Hatchet, and stript naked, and yet was crawling up and down. It is a solemn sight to see so many Christians lying in their blood, some here, and some there, like a company of Sheep torn by Wolves. All of them stript naked by a company of hell-hounds, roaring, singing, ranting and insulting, as if they would have torn our very hearts out; yet the Lord by his Almighty power preserved a number of us from death, for there were twenty-four of us taken alive and carried Captive.

I had often before this said, that if the Indians should come, I should chuse rather to be killed by them then taken alive but when it came to the tryal my mind changed; their glittering weapons so daunted my spirit, that I chose rather to go along with those (as I may say) ravenous Beats,Beats Beats beasts - [RR]then that moment to end my dayes; and that I may the better declare what happened to me during that grievous Captivity I shall particularly speak of the severall Removes we had up and down the Wilderness.

The first Remove. Remove Remove graphic Rowlandson tells her story in a series of removals, or “removes,” that mark changes to her location as the raiding party traveled across New England. Lisa Brooks, professor of English and American Studies at Amherst College and the author of Our Beloved Kin: New History of King Philip's War created an interactive map of their movements as part of that project that is available here. - [RR]

Now away we must go with those Barbarous 6 Creatures, with our bodies wounded and bleeding, and our hearts no less than our bodies. About a mile we went that night, up upon a hill within sight of the Town where they intended to lodge. There was hard by a vacant house (deserted by the English before, for fear of the Indians) I asked them whither I might not lodge in the house that night? to which they answered, what will you love English men still? this was the dolefullest night that ever my eyes saw. Oh the roaring, and singing and danceing, and yelling of those black creatures in the night, which made the place a lively resemblance of hell. And as miserable was the wast that was there made, of Horses, Cuttle, Sheep, Swine, Calves, Lambssia, Roasting Pigs, and Fowls [which they bad plundered in the Town] some roasting, some lying and burning, and some boyling to feed our merciless Enemles; who were joyfull enough though we were disconsolate. To add to the dolefulness of the former day, and the dismalness of the present night: my thoughts ran upon my losses and sad bereaved condition. All was gone, my Husband gone (at least separated from me, he being in the Bay; and to add to my grief, the Indians told me they would kill him as he came homeward) my Children gone, my Relations and Friends gone, our House and home and all our comforts within door, and without, all was gone, (except my life) and I knew not but the next moment that might go too. There remained nothing to me but one poor wounded 7 babe, and it seemed at present worse than death that it was in such a pitiful condition, bespeaking, Compassion, and I had an refreshing for it, nor suitable things to revive it, Little do many think what is the savageness and bruitishness of this barbarous Enemy! even those that seem to profess more than others among them, when the English have fallen into their hands.

Those seven that were killed at LancasterLancaster the summer before upon a Sabbath day Lancaster Rowlandson is referring to an attack on Lancaster in August of 1675 that left seven colonists dead. The attack is thought to have been led by the Nipmuc sachem Monoco, who the Anglo-Americans referred to as “One-Eye’d John.” - [RR] , and the one that was afterward killed upon a week day, were stain and mangled in a barbarous manner, by one-ey'd John, and Marlborough's Praying Indians, Marlborough Marlborough Suspicion for the Lancaster attack also fell on the “Praying Indians” (Indians who had converted to Christianity and allied with the colonists) of whom there was a large community in nearby Marlborough. This was one of many “Christian Indian” communities in the Bay Colony at the time. At the beginning of the war, their men were recruited to fight for the colonists; already by this time, however, fear that their true loyalties lay with the other side led Bay colony officials to remove them from service and to form five “praying towns” at a greater distance from English settlers. Later, fears that even these plantations were too close to colonists’ homes resulted in a further removal to Deer Island, where hundreds of the interned inhabitants died in the harsh winter that followed. - [RR] which Capt. Mosely Moseley Moseley Captain Moseley was an infamous military figure who earned his fame by fighting pirates on the New England coast. In August 1675, he arrived in Marlborough. Based on controversial evidence, Moseley accused fifteen of the “Praying Indians” of the Lancaster attack. He took the accused to Boston to parade them through the streets, “pinioned and fastened with lines from neck to neck” as Daniel Gookin wrote. Gookin thought that the affair marked "a foundation and beginning of much trouble, that befell both the English and the Indians afterward." - [RR] brought to Boston, as the Indians told me.

The second Remove.

But now, the next morning, I must turn my back upon the Town, and travel with them into the vast and isolate Wilderness, I knew not whether. It is not my tongue, or pen can express the sorrows of my heart, and bitterness of my spirit, that I had at this departure: but God was with me, in a wonderfull manner, carrying me along, and bearing up my spirit, that it did not quite fail One of the Indians carried my poor wounded Babe upon a horse, it went moaning all along, I shall dy, I shall dy. I went on foot after it, with sorrow that cannot be exprest. At length I took it off the horse, and carried it in my armes till my strength failed, and I 8 fell down with it: Then they set me upon a horse with my wounded Child in my lap, and there being no furnitunre upon the horse back; as we were going down a steep hill, we both fell over the horses head, at which they like inhumane creatures laught, and rejoyced to see it, though I thought we should there have ended our dayes, as overcome with so many difficulties. But the Lord renewed my strength still, and carried me along, that I might see more of his Power; yea, so much that I could never have thought of, had I not experienced it.

After this it quickly began to snow, and when night came on, they stopt: and now down I must sit in the snow, by a little fire, and a few boughs behind me, with my sick Child in my lap; and calling much for water, being now (through the wound) fallen into a violent Fever. My own wound also growing so stiff, that I could scarce sit down or rise up; yet so it must be, that I must sit all this cold winter night upon the cold snowy ground, with my sick Child in my armes, looking that every hour would be the last of its life; and having no Christian friend near me, either to comfort or help me. Oh, I may see the wonderfull power of God, that my Spirit did not utterly sink under my affliction: still the Lord upheld me with his gracious and mercifull Spirit, and we were both alive to see the light of the next morning.

The third remove.

The morning being come, they prepared to go 9 their way: One of the Indians got up upon a horse, and they set me up behind him, with my poor sick Babe in my lap. A very wearisome and tedious day I had of it; what with my own wound, and my Childs being so exceeding sick, and in a lamentable condition with her wound. It may be easily judged what a poor feeble condition we were in, there being not the least crumb of refreshing that came within either of our mouths, from Wednesday night to Saturday night, except only a little cold water. This day in the afternoon, about an hour by Sun, we came to the place where they intendded, viz. an Indian Town, called Wenimesset, Wenimesset Wenimesset Menimiset was an important Nipmuc refuge and gathering place along the Ware River. It had operated as a sanctuary for councils since the beginning of the war, and marked the first “Indian Town” that Rowlandson encountered. She was surprised at how many people lived there. - [RR] Norward of Quabaug. When we were come, Oh the number of Pagans (now merciless enemies) that there came about me, that I may say as David, Psal. 27.13, I had fainted, unless I had believed, &c The next day was the Sabbath: I then remembred how careless I had been of Gods holy time: how many Sabbaths I had lost and mispent, and how evily I had walked in Gods sight; which lay so close unto my spirit, that it was easie for me to see how righteous it was with God to cut off the threed of my life, and cast me out of his presence for ever. Yet the Lord still shewed mercy to me, and upheld me; and as he wounded me with one hand, so he healed me with the other. This day there came to me one Robbert PepperPepper Pepper Robert Pepper was captured on September 4th, 1675, when Captain Beers and a group of 36 colonists were ambushed on their way to reinforce the garrison in Northfield, Massachusetts. Beers and many of his soldiers were killed in the conflict. - [RR] (a man belonging to Roxbury ) who was taken in Captain Beers his Fight, and had been now a considerable time with the Indians; and up with them almost as far as Albany to see king Philip,Philip Philip Wampanoag leader Metacom, called “King Philip” by the English settlers. - [RR] as he told me, and was now very lately come into these parts. Hearing, I say, that I was in this Indian Town, he obtained leave to come and see me. He told me, he himself was wounded in the leg at Captain Beers his Fight; and was not able some time to go, but as they carried him, and as he took Oaken leaves and laid to his wound, and through the blessing of God he was able to travel again. Then I took Oaken leaves and laid to my side, and with the blessing of God it cured me also; yet before the cure was wrought, I may say, as it is in Psal. 38.5, 6. My wounds stink and are corrupt, I am troubled, I am bowed down greatly, I go mourning all the day long. I sat much alone with a poor wounded Child in my lap, which moaned night and day, having nothing to revive the body, or cheer the spirits of her, but in stead of that, sometimes one Indian would come and tell me one hour, that your Master will knock your Child in the head, and then a second, and then a third, your Master will quickly knock your Child in the head.

This was the comfort I had from them, miserable comforters are ye all, as he said. Job Job See Job 16:2. - [RR] Thus nine dayes I sat upon my knees, with my Babe in my lap, till my flesh was raw again; my Child being even ready to depart this sorrowfull world, they bade me carry it out to another Wigwam (I suppose because they would not be troubled with such spectacles) Whither I went with a very heavy heart, and down I sat with the picture of death in my lap. 9 About two houres in the night, my sweet Babe, like a Lambe departed this life, on Feb. 18. 1675. It being about six yeares, and five months old. It was nine dayes from the first wounding, in this miserable condition, without any refreshing of one nature or other, except a little cold water. I cannot but take notice, how at another time I could not bear to be in the room where any dead person was, but now the case is changed; I must and could ly down by my dead Babe, side by side all the night after. I have thought since of the wonderfull goodness of God to me, in preserving me in the use of my reason and senses, in that distressed time, that I did not use wicked and violent means to end my own miserable life. In the morning, when they understood that my child was dead they sent for me home to my Masters Wigwam: (by my Master in this writing, must be understood Quanopin, Quanopin Quanopin Quanopin, or Quanopen, was a Narragansett leader. He had three wives, one of whom, Weetamoo (or Weetamoe) was Metacom's brother-in-law and herself a sachem of the ​​Pocasset Wampanoag. Rowlandson was sold to Quanopin by the Narragansett man who had first captured her. - [RR]who was a Saggamore, Saggamore Saggamore Like “Sachem,” “Sagamore” is an anglicization of the Indigenous term for a tribal leader. The word can be used to denote: 1. the leader of a regional tribe or 2. the leader of a confederation of tribes. - [RR] and married King Phillips wives Sister; not that he first took me, but I was sold to him by another Narrhaganset Indian, who took me when first I came out of the Garison) I went to take up my dead child in my arms to carry it with me, but they bid me let it alone: there was no resisting, but goe I must and leave it. When I had been at my masters wigwam, I took the first opportunity I could get, to go look after my dead child: when I came I askt them what they had done with it? then they told me it was upon the hill: then they went and 10 shewed me where it was, where I saw the ground was newly digged, and there they told me they had buried it: There I left that at Child in the Wilderness, and must commit it, and my self also in this Wilderness-condition, to him who is above all. God having taken away this dear Child, I went to see my daughter Mary, who was at this same Indian Town, at a Wigwam not very far off, though we had little liberty or opportunity to see one another: she was about ten years old, & taken from the door at first by a Praying Ind & afterward sold for a gun. When I came in sight, she would fall a weeping; at which they were provoked, and would not let me come near her, but bade me be gone; which was a heart-cutting word to me. I had one Child dead, another in the Wilderness, I knew not where, the third they would not let me come near to: Me (as he said)Genesis Genesis See Genesis 42:36. - [RR] have ye bereaved of my Children, Joseph is not, and Simeon is not, and ye will take Benjamin also, all these things are against me. I could not for still in this condition, but kept, walking from one place to another. And as I was going along, my heart was even overwhelm'd with the thoughts of my condition, and that I should have Children, and a Nation which I knew not ruled over them. Whereupon I earnestly entreated the Lord, that he would consider my low estate, and shew me a token for good, and if it were his blessed will, some sign and hope of some relief. And indeed quickly the Lord answered, in some measure, my poor prayers: 11 For as I was going up and down mourning and lamenting my condition, my Son came to me, and asked me how I did; I had not seen him before, since the destruction of the Town, and I knew not where he was, till I was informed by himself, that he was amongst a smaller percel of Indians, whose place was about six miles off; with tears in his eyes, he asked me whether his Sister Sarah was dead; and told me he had seen his Sister Mary; and prayed me, that I would not be troubled in reference to himself. The occasion of his coming to see me at this time, was this: There was, as I said, about six miles from us, a smal Plantation of Indians, where it seems he had been during his Captivity: and at this time, there were some Forces of the Ind. gathered out of our company, and some also from them (among whom was my Sons master) to go to assault and burn Medfield: In this time of the absence of his master, his dame brought him to see me. I took this to be some gracious answer to my earnest and unfeigned desire. The next day, viz. to this, the Indians returned from Medfield, all the company, for those that belonged to the other smal company, came thorough the Town that now we were at But before they came to us, Oh! the outragiousoutragious outragiousRowlandson means something like “full of rage.” - [RR]roaring and hooping that there was: They began their din about a mile before they came to us. By their noise and hooping they signified how many they had destroyed (which was at that time twenty three) Those that were with us at home, were 12 gathered together as soon as they heard the hooping, and every time that the other went over their number, these at home gave a shout, that the very Earth rung again: And thus they continued till those that had been upon the expedition were come up to the Sagamores Wigwam; and then, Oh, the hideous insulting and triumphing that there was over some English mens scalps that they had taken (as their manner it) and brought with them. I cannot but take notice of the wonderfull mercy of God to me in those afflictions, in sending me a Bible one of the Indians that came from Medfield fight, had brought some plunder, came to me, and asked me, if I would have a Bible, he had got one in his Basket, I was glad of it, and asked him, whether be thought the Indians would let me read? he answered, yes; so I took the Bible, and in that melancholy time, it came into my mind to read first the 28. Chap. of Deut. which I did, and when I had read it, my dark heart wrought on this manner, That there was no mercy for me, that the blessings were gone, and the Curses Came in their room, and that I bad lost my opportunity. But the Lord helped me still to go one reading till I came to Chap. 30 the seven first verses, where I sound, There was mercy promised again, if we would return to him by reportance; and though we were scartered from one end of the Earth to the other, yet the Lord would gather us together, and turn all those curses upon our Enemies, I do not desire to live to forget this Scripture, and what comfort it was to me.

13

Now the Ind. began to talk of removing from this place, some one way, and some another. There were now besides my self nine, English Captives in this place (all of them Children, except one Woman) I got an opportunity to go and take my leave of them; they being to go one way, and I another, I asked them whether they were earnest with God for deliverance, they told me, they did as they were able, and it was some comfort to me, that the Lord stirred up Children to look to him. The Woman viz. Goodwife Jostin told me, she should never see me again, and that she could find in her heart to run away; I wisht her not to run away by any means, for we were near thirty miles from any English Town, and she very big with Child, and had but one week to reckon; and another Child in her Arms, two years old, and bad Rivers there were to go over, & we were feeble, with our poor & course entertainment. I had my Bible with me, I pulled it out, and asked her whether she would read; we opened the Bible and lighted on Psal. 27. in which Psalm we especially took notice of that, ver. alt, Wait on the Lord, Be of good courage, and he shall strengthen thine Heart, wait I say on the Lord.

The fourth Remove.

And now I must part with that little Company I had. Here I parted from my Daughter Mary, (whom I never saw again till I saw her in Dorcester, returned from Captivity, and from four little Cousins 14 and Neighbours, some of which I never saw afterward: the Lord only knows the end of them. Amongst them also was that poor Woman before mentioned, who came to a sad end, as some of the company told me in my travel: She having much grief upon her Spirit, about her miserable condition, being so near her time, she would be often asking the Indians to let her go home; they not being willing to that, and yet vexed with her importunity, gathered a great company together about her, and stript her naked, and set her in the midst of them; and when they had sung and danced about her (in their hellish manner) as long as they pleased, they knockt her on head, and the child in her arms with her: when they had done that, they made a fire and put them both into it, and told the other Children that were with them, that if they attempted to go home, they would serve them in like manner: The Children said, she did not shed one tear, but prayed all the while. But to return to my own Journey; we travelled about half a day or little more, and came to a desolate place in the Wilderness, where there were no Wigwams or Inhabitants before; we came about the middle of the afternoon to this place; cold and wet, and snowy, and hungry, and weary, and no refreshing, for man, but the cold ground to sit on, and our poor Indian cheer.

Heart-aking thoughts here I had about my poor Children, who were scattered up and down among the 15 wild beasts of the forrest: My head was light & dissey (either through hunger or hard lodging, or trouble or altogether) my knees feeble, my body raw by sitting double night and day, that I cannot express to man the affliction that lay upon my Spirit, but the Lord helped me at that time to express it to himself. I opened my Bible to read, and the Lord brought that precious Scripture to me, Jer. 31.16. Thus saith the Lord, refrain thy voice from weeping, and thine eyes from tears, for thy work shall be rewarded, and they shall come again from the land of the Enemy. This was a sweet Cordial to me, when I sat down, and weept sweetly over this Scripture. At this place we continued about four dayes.

The fifth Remove.

The occasion (as I thought) of their moving at this time, was, the English Army it being near and following them: For they went, as if they had gone for their lives, for some considerable way, and then they made a stop, and chose some of their stoutest men, and sent them back to hold the English Army in play whilst the rest escaped: And then, like Jehu,Jehu Jehu Like Jesus - [RR]they marched on furiously, with their old, and with their young: some carried their old decrepit mothers, some carried one, and some another. Four of them carried a great Indian upon a Bier; but going through a thick Wood with him, they were hindred, and could make no hast; whereupon they took 16 him upon their backs, and carried him, one at a time, till they came to Bacquaug River.Bacquaug Bacquaug Paquaug River, now called Miller's River. If it refers to the river, “Paquaug” may translate to “clear water.” The word may also refer to the town, Athol, near where the travelers were likely to have crossed. Athol was originally called Pequiog or Pequoiag (“cleared land”) by Nipmuc inhabitants. - [RR] Upon a Friday, a little after noon we came to this River. When all the company was come up, and were gathered together, I thought to count the number of them, but they were so many, and being somewhat in motion, it was beyond my skil. In this travel, because of my wound, I was somewhat favoured in my load; I carried only my knitting work and two quarts of parched meal: Being very faint I asked my mistriss to give me one spoonfull of the meal, but she would not give me a taste. They quickly sell to cutting dry trees, to make Rafts to carry them over the river: and soon my turn came to go over:p By the advantage of some brush which they had laid upon the Raft to sit upon, I did not wet my foot (which many of themselves at the other end were mid-leg deep) which cannot but be acknowledged as a favour of God to my weakned body, it being a very cold time. I was not before acquainted with such kind of doings or dangers. When thou passest through the water I will be with thee, and through the Rivers they overflow thee, Isai. 43.2. A certain number of us got over the River that night, but it was the night after the Sabbath before all the company was got over. On the Saturday they boyled an old Horses leg which they had got, and so we drank of the broth, as soon as they thought it was ready, and when it was almost all gone, they filled it up again.

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The first week of my being among them, I hardly ate any thing; the second week, I found my stomach grow very faint for want of something; and yet it was very hard to get down their filthy trash: but the third week, though I could think how formerly my stomach would turn against this or that, and I could starve and dy before I could eat such things, yet they were sweet and savoury to my taste. I was at this time knitting a pair of white cotton stockins for my mistriss: and had not yet wrought upon a Sabbath day; when the Sabbath came they bade me go to work; I told them it was the Sabbath-day, and desired them to let me rest, and told them I would do as much more to morrow; to which they answered me, they would break my face. And here I cannot but take notice of the strange providence of God in preserving the heathen: They were many hundreds, old and young, some sick, and some lame many had PapoosesPapooses Papooses Now generally regarded as an offensive term, “papoose” is a borrowing from Algonquin to describe a young North American indigenous child. In more recent use, it can also refer to cloth baby carriers that wrap around the torso. - [RR]at their backs, the greatest number at this time with us, were Squaws,Squaws Squaws Now generally regarded as an offensive term, “squaw” refers to a North American indigenous woman or wife. The term has a split history: as it derives from the Mohawk language, adapted by French and Canadian settlers, it was always offensive. As it derives from the Algonquin, “squaw” was originally a neutral term that took on racist connotations through its Anglo-American usage through the eighteenth century and afterwards. - [RR]and they travelled with all they had, bag and baggage, and yet they got over this River aforesaid; and on Munday they set their Wigwams on fire, and away they went: On that very day came the English Army after them to this River, and saw the smoak of their Wigwams, and yet this River put a stop to them. God did not give them courage or activity to go over after us; we were not ready for so great a mercy as victory and deliverance; if we had been, God would have sound out a way for the English 18 to have passed this River, as well as for the Indians with their Squaws and Children, and all their Luggage: Oh that my People had hearkened to me, and Israel had walked in my ways, I should soon have subdued their Enemies, and turned my hand against their Adversaries, Psal. 81.13.14.

The sixth Remove.

On Munday ( as I said ) they set their Wigwams on fire, and went away. It was a cold morning, and before us there was a great Brook with ice on it; some waded throgh it, up to the knees & higher, but others went till they came to a Beaver-dam, and I amongst them, where through the good providence of God, I did not wet my foot. I went along that day mourning and lamenting, leaving farther my own Country, and travelling into the vast and howling Wilderness, and I understood something of Lot 's Wife's Temptation, when she looked back Lot Lot In the Old Testament, as Lot and his family fled their burning cities, Lot’s wife looked back. They had been warned not to do so and she was turned into a pillar of salt. In Luke 17:32, Jesus references the story: “Remember Lot’s Wife!” The lesson of the tale is ambiguous, and has been interpreted in different ways by various traditions. - [RR] : we came that day to a great Swamp, by the side of which we took up our lodging that night. When I came to the brow of the hill, that looked toward the Swamp, I thought we had been come to a great Indian Town (though there were none but our own Company) The Indians were as thick as the trees: it seemd as if there had been a thousand Hatchets going at once: if one looked before one, there was nothing but Indians, and behind one, nothing but Indians, and so on either hand, I my self in the midst, and no Christian soul near me, and yet how 19 hath the Lord preserved me in safety? Oh the experience that I have had of the goodness of God, to me and mine!

The seventh Remove.

After a restless and hungry night there, we had a wearisome time of it the next day. The Swamp by which we lay, was, as it were, a deep Dungeon, and an exceeding high and steep hill before it. Before I got to the top of the hill, I thought my heart and legs, and all would have broken, and failed me. What through faintness, and soreness of body, it was a grievous day of travel to me. As we went along, I saw a place where English Cattle had been: that was comfort to me, such as it was: quickly after that we came to an English Path, which so took with me, that I thought I could have freely lyan down and dyed. That day, a little after noon, we came to Squaukheag, Squaukheag Squaukheag The travelers were here moving through Sokoki territory. The colonists referred to the southernmost Sokoki town as Squaukheag. Colonists later named it “Northfield,” as it was the northernmost “field” habitat that they settled. Rowlandson was happy to see the signs of settlement; she notes with hope a “place where English cattle had once been.” - [RR]where the Indians quickly spread themselves over the deserted English Fields, gleaning what they could find; some pickt up ears of Wheat that were crickled down, some found ears of Indian Corn, some found Ground-nutsGround-nutsGround-nuts Groundnuts refers to the plant Apios Americana, which is native to North America. Its tubers resemble potatoes and the plant was a common source of starch for Indigenous peoples. - [RR], and others sheaves of Wheat that were frozen together in the shock,Shock Shock A shock, or stook, is a pile of cut-grain (usually wheat, oats, or barley) arranged in a conical stack to allow the stalks to dry before threshing. Threshing is the process by which farmers loosen the edible part of the grain from the husk and straw. - [RR] & went to threshing of them out. My self got two ears of Indian Corn, and whilst I did but turn my back, one of them was stolen from me, which much troubled me. There came an Indian to them at that time, with a basket of Horse-liver; I asked him to give me a piece: What, sayes he, can you eat Horse-liver? I told him, I would try, 20 if he would give a piece, which he did, and I laid it on the coals to rost; but before it was half ready, they got half of it away from me, so that I was fain to take the rest and eat it as it was, with the blood about my mouth, and yet a savoury bit it was to me: For to the hungry Soul every bitter thing is sweet. A solemn sight methought it was, to see Fields of wheat and Indian Corn forsaken and spoiled: and the remainders of them to be food for our merciless Enemies. That night we had a mess of wheat for our Supper.

The eighth Remove.

On the morrow morning we must go over the River, i. e. Connecticot,Connecticot ConnecticotThe Connecticut River. - [RR]to meet with King Philip, two Cannoos full, they had carried over, the next Turn I my self was to go; but as my foot was upon the Cannoo to step in, there was a sudden out-cry among them, and I must step back; and instead of going over the River, I must go four or five miles up the River farther Northward. Some of the indians ran one way, and some another. The cause of this rout was, as I thought, their espying some English Scouts, who were thereabout. In this travel up the River; about noon the Company made a stop, and sate down; some to eat, and others to rest them. As I sate amongst them, musing of things past, my Son Joseph unexpectedly came to me: we asked of each others welfare, bemoaning our dolefull condition, and the change that had come upon us: We had Husbands and

21

Father, and Children, and Sisters, and Friends, and Relations, and House, and Home, and many Comforts of this Life: but now we may say, as Job, job job See Job 1:21. - [RR] Naked came I out of my Mothers Womb, and naked shall I return: The Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken away, Blessed be the Name of the Lord. I asked him whither he would read; he told me, he earnestly desired it, I gave him my Bible, and he lighted upon that comfortable Scripture, Psal. 18.17, 18. I shall not dy but live, and declare the works of the Lord: the Lord hath chastened me sore, yet he hath not given me over to death. Look here, Mother (sayes he) did you read this? And here I may take occasion to mention one principall ground of my setting forth these Lines: even as the Psalmist sayes, To declare the Works of the Lord, and his wonderfull Power in carrying us along, preserving us in the Wilderness, while under the Enemies hand, and returning of us in safety again. And His goodness in bringing to my hand so many comfortable and suitable Scriptures in my distress. But to Return, We travelled on till night; and in the morning, we must go over the River to Philip's Crew. When I was in the Cannoo, I could not but be amazed at the numerous crew of Pagans that were on the Bank on the other side. When I came ashore, they gathered all about me, I sitting alone in the midst: I observed they asked one another questions, and laughed, and rejoyced over their Gains and Victories.

22

Then my heart began to fail: and I fell a weeping; which was the first time to my remembrance, that I wept before them. Although I had met with so much Affliction, and my heart was many times ready to break, yet could I not shed one tear in their sight: but rather had been all this while in a maze, and like one astonished: but now I may say as, Psal 137.1. By the Rivers of Babylon, there we sate down: yea, we wept when we remembred Zion. There one of them asked me, why I wept, I could hardly tell what to say: yet I answered, they would kill me: No, said he, none will hurt you. Then came one of them and gave me two spoon-fulls of Meal to comfort me, and another gave me half a pint of PeasePease Pease Peas (archaic). - [RR] ; which was more worth than many Bushels at another time. Then I went to see King Philip, he bade me come in and sit down, and asked me whether I would smoke it (a usual Complement now adayes amongst Saints and Sinners) but this no way suited me. For though I had formerly used Tobacco, yet I had left it ever since I was first taken. It seems to be a Bait, the Devil layes to make men loose their precious time: I remember with shame, how formerly, when I had taken two or three pipes, I was presently ready for another, such a bewitching thing it is: But I thank God, he has now given me power over it: surely there are many who may be better imployed than to ly sucking a stinking Tobacco-pipe.

Now the Indians gather their Forces to go against 23 North-Hampton: over-night one went about yelling and hooting to give notice of the design. Whereupon they fell to boyling of Ground-nuts, and parching of Corn (as many as had it) for their Provision: and in the morning away they went: During my abode in this place, Philip spake to me to make a shirt for his boy, which I did, for which he gave me a shilling: I offered the mony to my master, but he bade me keep it: and with it I bought a piece of Horse flesh. Afterwards he asked me to make a Cap for his boy, for which he invited me to Dinner. I went, and he gave me a Pancake, about as big as two fingers; it was made of parched wheat, beaten, and fryed in Bears grease, but I though I never tasted pleasanter meat in my life. There was a Squaw who spake to me to make a shirt for her SannupSannup Sannup A borrowing from Massachusett, Sannup refers to a North American indigenous husband or alternately to a man with authority under that of a chief. - [RR], for which she gave me a piece of Bear. Another asked me to knit a pair of Stockins, for which she gave me a quart of Pease: I boyled my Pease and Bear together, and invited my master and mistriss to dinner, but the proud Gossip, be cause I served them both in one Dish, would eat nothing, except one bit that he gave her upon the point of his knife. Hearing that my son was come to this place, I went to see him, and found him lying flat upon the ground: I asked him how he could sleep so? he answered me, That he was not asleep, but at Prayer; and lay so that they might not observe what he was doing. I pray God he may remember these things now he is returned in safety. At 24 this Place (the Sun now getting higher) what with the beams and heat of the Sun, and the smoak of the Wigwams, I thought I should have been blind, I could scarce discern one Wigwam from another, There was here one Mary Thurston of Medfield, who seeing how it was with me, lent me a Hat to wear: but as soon as I was gone, the Squaw (who owned that Mary Thurston ) came running after me, and got it away again. Here was the Squaw that gave me one spoonfull of Meal. I put it in my Pocket to keep it safe: yet notwithstanding some body stole it, but put five Indian Corns in the room of it: which Corns were the greatest Provisions I had in my travel for one day.

The Indians returning from North-Hamptom, brought with them some Horses, and Sheep, and other things which they had taken: I desired them, that they would carry me to Albany, upon one of those Horses, and sell me for Powder: for so they had sometimes discoursed. I was utterly hopless of getting home on foot, the way that I came. I could hardly bear to think of the many weary steps I had taken, to come to this place.

The ninth Remove.

But in stead of going either to Albany or homeward, we must go five miles up the River, and then go over it. Here we abode a while. Here lived a sorry Indian, who spoke to me to make him a shirt, when I had done it, he would pay me nothing. But 25 he living by the River side, where I often went to fetch water, I would often be putting of him in mind, and calling for my pay: at last he told me, if I would make another shirt, for a Papoos not yet born, he would give me a knife, which he did when I had done it. I carried the knife in, and my master asked me to give it him, and I was not a little glad that I had any thing that they would accept of, and be pleased with. When we were at this place, my Masters maid came home, she had been gone three weeks into the Narrhaganset Country, to fetch Corn, where they had stored up some in the ground: she brought home about a peck and half of Corn. This was about the time that their great Captain, NaanantoNaananto Naananto Better known as Canonchet, he was a Narragansett sachem who, in 1675, signed a treaty with the colonists that his people would remain neutral in Metacom’s War. In defiance of that signature, he became a war leader as the Narragansetts joined the fight. Canonchet was captured by the English on April 2, 1676 and killed the next day in a public execution. News of his death was shared and celebrated throughout the Bay Colony. - [RR], was killed in the Narrhaganset Countrey. My Son being now about a mile from me, I asked liberty to go and see him, they bade me go, and away I went: but quickly lost my self, travelling over Hills and thorough Swamps, and could not find the way to him. And I cannot but admire at the wonderfull power and goodness of God to me, in that, though I was gone from home, and met with all sorts of Indian, and those I had no knowledge of, and there being no Christian soul near me; yet not one of them offered the least imaginable miscarriage to me. I turned homeward again, and met with my master, he shewed me the way to my Son: When I came to him I found him not well; and withall he had a boyl on his side, which much troubled him: We bemoaned one another 26 while, as the Lord helped us, and then I returned again. When I was returned, I found my self as unsatisfied as I was before. I went up and down mourning and lamenting: and my spirit was ready to sink, with the thoughts of my poor Children: my Son was ill, and I could not but think of his mournfull looks, and no Christian-Friend was near him, to do any office of love for him, either for Soul or Body. And my poor Girl, I knew not where she was, nor whither she was sick, or well, or alive, or dead. I repaired under these thoughts to my Bible (my great comfort in that time) and that Scripture came to my hand, Cast thy burden upon the Lord, and He shall sustain thee, Psal. 55.22.

But I was fain to go and look after something to satisfie my hunger, and going among the Wigwams, I went into one, and there found a Squaw who, shewed her self very kind to me, and gave me a piece of Bear. I put it into my pocket,Pocket Pocket Rowlandson wore a pocket typical for a New England woman, which was not part of her clothing but rather a small bag tied around her waist. In it, she carried essentials: her Bible, needles and yarn, and at times, morsels of food. - [RR]and came home, but could not find an opportunity to broil it, for fear they would get it from me, and there it lay all that day and night in my stinking pocket. In the morning I went to the same Squaw, who had a Kettle of Ground nuts boyling; I asked her to let me boyle my piece of Bear in her Kettle, which she did, and gave me some Ground-nuts to eat with it: and I cannot but think how pleasant it was to me. I have sometime seen Bear bake very handsomly among the English, and some liked it, but the thoughts that it was Bear, made me 27 tremble: but now that was savoury to me that one would think was enough to turn the stomach of a bruit Creature.

One bitter cold day, I could find no room to sit down before the fire: I went out, and could not tell what to do, but I went in to another Wigwam, where they were also sitting round the fire, but the Squaw laid a skin for me, and bid me sit down, and gave me some Ground-nuts, and bade me come again: and told me they would buy me, if they were able, and yet these were strangers to me that I never saw before.

The tenth Remove.

That day a small part of the Company removed about three quarters of a mile, intending further the next day. When they came to the place where they intended to lodge, and bad pitched their wigwams; being hungry I went again back to the place we were before at, to get something to eat: being encouraged by the Squaws kindness, who bade me come again; when I was there, there came an Indian to look after me, who when he had found me, kickt me all along: I went home and found Venison roasting that night, but they would not give me one bit of it. Sometimes I met with favour, and sometimes with nothing but frowns.

The eleventh Remove.

The next day in the morning they took their Travel, intending a dayes journey up the River, I took

28

my load at my back, and quickly we came to wade over the River: and passed over tiresome and wearisome hills. One hill was so steep that I was fain to creep up upon my knees, and to hold by the twiggs and bushes to keep my self from falling backward. My head also was so light, that I usually reeled as I went; but I hope all these wearisome steps that I have taken, are but a forewarning of me to the heavenly rest. I know, O Lord, that thy Judgements are right, and that thou in faithfulness hast afflicted me, Psal. 119 71.

The twelfth Remove.

It was upon a Sabbath-day-morning, that they prepared for their Travel. This morning I asked my master whither he would sell me to my Husband; he answered me Nux, Nux Nux Translates to “Yes” in Narragansett. - [RR]which did much rejoyce my spirit. My mistriss, before we went, was gone to the burial of a Papoos, and returning, she found me sitting and reading in my Bible; she snatched it hastily out of my hand, and threw it out of doors; I ran out and catcht it up, and put it into my pocket, and never let her see it afterward. Then they packed up their things to be gone, and gave me my load: I complained it was too heavy, whereupon she gave me a slap in the face, and bade me go; I lifted up my heart to God, hoping that Redemption was not far off: and the rather because their insolency grew worse and worse.

But the thoughts of my going homeward (for we bent our course) much cheared my Spirit, and 29 made my burden seem light, and almost nothing at all. But (to my amazment and great perplexity) the scale was soon turned: for when we had gone a little way, on a sudden my mistriss gives out, she would go no further, but turn back again, and said. I must go back again with her, and she called her Sannup, and would have had him gone back also, but he would not, but said, He would go on, and come to us again in three dayes. My Spirit was upon this, I confess, very impatient, and almost outragious. I thought I could as well have dyed as went back: I cannot declare the trouble that I was in about it; but yet back again I must go. As soon as I had an opportunity, I took my Bible to read, and that quieting Scripture came to my hand, Psal. 46.10. Be still, and know that I am God. Which stilled my spirit for the present: But a sore time of tryal, I concluded, I had to go through. My master being gone, who seemed to me the best friend that I had of an Indian, both in cold and hunger, and quickly so it proved. Down I sat, with my heart as full as it could hold, and yet so hungry that I could not sit neither: but going out to see what I could find, and walking among the Trees, I found six Acorns, and two Ches-nuts, which were some refreshment to me. Towards Night I gathered me some sticks for my own comfort, that I might not ly a-cold: but when we came to ly down they bade me go out, and ly some-where-else, for they had company (they said) come in more than 30 their own: I told them, I could not tell where to go, they bade me go look; I told them, if I went to another Wigwam they would be angry, and send me home again. Then one of the Company drew his sword, and told me he would run me thorough if I did not go presently. Then was I fain to stoop to this rude fellow, and to go out in the night, I knew not whither. Mine eyes have seen that fellow afterwards walking up and down Boston, under the appearance of a Friend-Indian, and severall others of the like Cut. I went to one Wigwam, and they told me they had no room. Then I went to another, and they said the same; at last an old Indian bade me come to him, and his Squaw give me some Ground-nuts; she gave me also something to lay under my head, and a good fire we had: and through the good providence of God, I had a comfortable lodging that night. In the morning, another Indian bade me come at night, and he would give me six Ground nuts, which I did. We were at this place and time about two miles from Connecticut River. We went in the morning to gather Ground nuts, to the River, and went back again that night. I went with a good load at my back (for they when they went, though but a little way, would carry all their trumpery with them) I told them the skin was off my back, but I had no other comforting answer from them than this, That it would be no matter if my head were off too.

31 The thirteenth Remove.

Instead of going toward the Bay, which was that I desired, I must go with them five or six miles down the River into a mighty Thicket of Brush: where we abode almost a fortnight. Here one asked me to make a shirt for her Papoos, for which she gave me a mess of Broth, which was thickened with meal made of the Bark of a Tree, and to make it the better, she had put into it about a handfull of Pease, and a few roasted Ground-nuts, I had not seen my son a pritty while, and here was an Indian of whom I made inquiry after him, and asked him when he saw him: he answered me, that such a time his master roasted him, and that himself did eat a piece of him, as big as his two fingers, and that he was very good meat: But the Lord upheld my Spirit, under this discouragement; and I considered their horrible addictedness to lying, and that there is not one of them that makes the least conscience of speaking of truth. In this place, on a cold night, as I lay by the fire, I removed a stick that kept the heat from me, a Squaw moved it down again, at which I lookt up, and she threw a handfull of ashes in mine eyes; I thought I should have been quite blinded, and have never seen more: but lying down, the water run out of my eyes, and carried the dirt with it, that by the morning, I recovered my sight again. Yet upon this, and the like occasions, I hope it is not too much to say with Job,pittypityy Job 19:21. - [RR] Have pitty upon me , have pitty upon me, O ye my Friends, for the Hand 32 of the Lord has touched me. And here I cannot but remember how many times sitting in their Wigwams, and musing on things past, I should suddenly leap up and run out, as if I had been at home, forgetting where I was, and what my condition was: But when I was without, and saw nothing but Wilderness, and Woods, and a company of barbarous heathens: my mind quickly returned to me, which made me think of that, spoken concerning Sampson, who said Judges Judges Judges 16:20. - [RR] , I will go out and shake myself as at other times, but he wist not that the Lord was departed from him. About this time I began to think that all my hopes of Restoration would come to nothing. I thought of the English Army, and hoped for their coming, and being taken by them, but that failed. I hoped to be carried to Albany, at the Indians had discoursed before, but that failed also. I thought of being sold to my Husband, as my master spake, but in stead of that, my master himself was gone, and I left behind, so that my Spirit was now quite réady to sink. I asked them to let me go out and pick up some sticks, that I might get alone, And poure out my heart unto the Lord. Then also I took my Bible to read, but I found no comfort here neither: which many times I was went to find: So easie a thing it is with God to dry up the Streames of Scripture-comfort from us. Yet I can say, that in all my sorrows and afflictions, God did not leave me to have my impatience work towards himself, as if his wayes were unrighteous. 33 But I knew that he laid upon me less then I deserved Afterward, before this dolefull time ended with me, I was turning the leaves of my Bible, and the Lord brought to me some Scriptures, which did a little revive me, as that Isai. 55.8 For my thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your wayes my ways saith the Lord. And also that, Psal. 37.5. Commit thy way unto the Lord, trust also in him, and he shal bring it to pass. About this time they came yelping from Hadly, where they had killed three English men, and brought one Captive with them, viz. Thomas Read. They all gathered about the poor Man, asking him many Questions. I desired also to go and see him; and when I came, he was crying bitterly: supposing they would quickly kill him. Whereupon I asked one of them, whether they intended to kill him; he answered me, they would not: He being a little cheared with that, I asked him about the welfare of my Husband, he told me he saw him such a time in the Bay, and he was well, but very melancholly. By which I certainly understood (though I suspected it before) that whatsoever the Indians told me respecting him was vanity and lies. Some of them told me, he was dead, and they had killed him: some said he was Married again, and that the Governour wished him to Marry; and told him he should have his choice, and that all perswaded I was dead. So like were these barbarous creatures to him who was a lyar from the beginning.

34

As I was sitting once in the Wigwam here, Philips Maid came in with the Child in her arms, and asked me to give het a piece of my Apron, to make a flap for it, I told her I would not: then my Mistriss bad me give it, but still I said no: the maid told me if I would not give her a piece, she would tear a piece off it: I told her I would tear her Coat then with that my Mistriss rises up, and takes up a stick big enough to have killed me, and struck at me with it, but I stept out, and she struck the stick into the Mat of the Wigwam. But while she was pulling of it out, I ran to the Maid and gave her all my Apron, and so that storm went over.

Hearing that my Son was come to this place, I went to see him, and told him his Father was well, but very melancholly: he told me he was as much grieved for his Father as for himself; I wondred at his speech, for I thought I had enough upon my spirit in reference to my self, to make me mindless of my Husband and every one else: they being safe among their Friends. He told me also, that a while before, his Master (together with other Indians ) where going to the French for Powder; but by the way the Mohawks Mohawks Mohawks The Mohawk people were one of six nations that formed the confederation of the Haudenosaunee people (often referred to as the Iroquois Confederacy in Anglo-American or French Canadian terms). The Mohawk were the easternmost nation of the Haudenosaunee: at their peak, they controlled most of New York state, southern Ontario, and eastern Quebec. In Metacom’s war, the Mohawk allied with the Bay Colony. - [RR] met with them, and killed four of their Company which made the rest turn back again, for which I desire that myself and he may bless the Lord; for it might have been worse with him , had he been sold to the French,FrenchFrench The French in Canada were Catholic. Rowlandson and her fellow Puritans despised them for this reason. - [RR] than it proved to be in his remaining with the Indians.

I went to see an English Youth in this place, one 35 John Gilberd of Spring field I found him lying without dores, upon to ground; I asked him how he did? he told me he was very sick of a flux Flux Flux Flux was a common term for dysentery, a highly contagious, and potentially dangerous, infection of the intestines. - [RR], with eating so much blood: They had turned him out of the Wigwam, and with him an indian Papoos, almost dead, (whose Parents had been killed) in a bitter cold day, without fire or clothes: the young man himself had nothing on, but his shirt & wastcoat. This sight was enough to melt a heart of flint. There they lay quivering in the Cold, the youth round like a dog; the Papoos stretcht out, with his eyes and nose and mouth full of dirt, and yet alive, and groaning. I advised John to go and get to some fire: he told me he could not stand, but I perswaded him still, left he shouldly there and die: and with much adoe I got him to a fire, and went my self home. As soon as I was got home, his Masters Daughter came after me, to know what I had done with the English man, I told her I had got him to a fire in such a place. Now had I need to pray Pauls Prayer, 2 Thess. 3.2. That we may be delivered from unreasonable and wicked men. For her satisfaction I went along with her, and brought her to him; but before I got home again, it was noised about, that I was running away and getting the English youth along with me: that as soon as I came in, they began to rant and domineer: asking me where I had been, and what I had been doing? and saying they would knock him on the head: I told them, I had been seeing 36 the English Youth, and that I would not run away, they told me I lyed, and taking up a Hatchet, they came to me, and said they would knock me down if I stirred out again; and so confined me to the Wigwam. Now may I say with David, 2 Sam. 24.14. I am in a great strait. If I keep in, I must dy with hunger, and if I go out, I must be knockt in head. This distressed condition held that day, and half the next; And then the Lord remembred me, whose mercyes are great. Then came an Indian to me with a pair of stockings that were too big for him, and he would have me ravel them out, and knit them fit for him. I shewed my self willing, and bid him ask my mistriss if I might go along with him a little way; she said yes, I might, but I was not a little refresht with that news, that I had my liberty again. Then I went along with him, and he gave me some roasted Ground-nuts, which did again revive my feeble stomach.

Being got out of her sight: I had time and liberty again to look into my Bible: Which was my Guid by day, and my Pillow by night. Now that comfortable Scripture presented it self to me, Isa. 54.7. For a smal moment have I forsaken thee, but with great mercies will I gather thee. Thus the Lord carried me along from one time to another, and made good to me this precious promise, and many others. Then my Son came to see me, and I asked his master to let him stay a while with me, that I 37 might comb his head, and look over him, for he was almost over come with lice. He told me, when I had done, that he was very hungry, but I had nothing to relieve him; but bid him go into the Wigwams as he went along, and see if he could get any thing among them. Which he did, and it seemes tarried a little too long; for his Master was angry with him, and beat him, and then sold him. Then he came running to tell me he had a new Master, and that he had given him some Ground-nuts already. Then I went along with him to his new Master who told me he loved him: and he should not want. So his Master carried him away, & I never saw him afterward. till I saw him at Pascataqua in Portsmouth. Pascataqua Pascataqua The Piscataqua River divides New Hampshire and Maine. The name is a borrowing from Abenaki which refers both to the river and the land around it. More specifically, the term may refer to where the river branches into two or three channels: one theory of its etymology divides the word into “peske” for branch and “tegwe” for a river with a strong current. - [RR]

That night they bade me go out of the Wigwam again: my Mistrisses Papoos was sick, and it died that night, and there was one benefit in it, that there was more room. I went to a Wigwam, and they bade me come in, and gave me a skin to ly upon, and a mess of Venson and Ground-nuts, which was a choice Dish among them. On the morrow they burried the Papoos, and afterward, both morning and evening, there came a company to mourn and howle with her: though I confess, I could not much condole with them. Many sorrowfull dayes I had in this place: often getting alone; like a Crane, or a Swallow so did I chatter: I did mourn as a Dove, mine eyes fail with looking upward Oh, Lord I am oppressed, undertake for me, Isa. 38 14 38 I could tell the Lord as Hezekiah, ver. 3. Hezekiah Hezekiah Isaiah 38:3. - [RR] Remember now O Lord, I beseech thee, how I have walked before thee in truth. Now had I time to examine al my wayes: my Conscience did not accuse me of un-righteousness toward one or other: yet I saw how in my walk with God, I had been a careless creature. As David said Psalm_51 Psalm_51 Psalm 51:4. - [RR], Against thee, thee only have I sinned: & I might say with the poor Publican Publican Publican The tax collector speaks these words in Luke 18:13. - [RR] , God be merciful unto me a sinner. On the Sabbath-dayes, I could look upon the Sun and think how People were going to the house of God, to have their Souls refresht; & then home, and their bodies also: but I was destitute of both; & might say as the poor Prodigal, he would fain have filled his belly with the husks that the Swine did eat, and no mwaan gave unto him, Luke 15.16 For I must say with him, Father I have sinned against Heaven, and in thy sight, ver 21.Luke Luke Luke 15:21. - [RR] I remembred how on the night before & after the Sabbath, when my Family was about me, and Relations and Neighbours with us, we could pray and sing, and then refresh our bodies with the good creatures of God; and then have a comfortable Bed to ly down on: but in stead of all this, I had only a little Swill for the body, and then like a Swine, must ly down on the ground. I cannot express to man the sorrow that lay upon my Spirit, the Lord knows it. Yet that comfortable Scripture would often come to my mind, For a small moment have I forsaken thee, but with great mercies will I gather thee.

39 The fourteenth Remove.

Now must we pack up and be gone from this Thicket, bending our course toward the Bay-towns. I haveing nothing to eat by the way this day, but a few crumbs of Cake, that an Indian gave my girle the same day we were taken. She gave it me, and I put it in my pocket: there it lay, till it was so mouldy (for want of good baking) that one could not tell what it was made of; it fell all to crumbs, & grew so dry and hard, that it was like little flints; & this refreshed me many times, when I was ready to faint. It was in my thoughts when I put it into my mouth; that if ever I returned, I would tell the World what a blessing the Lord gave to such mean food. As we went along, they killed a Deer, with a young one in her, they gave me a piece of the Fawn, and it was so young and tender, that one might eat the bones as well as the flesh, and yet I thought it very good. When night came on we sate down; it rained, but they quickly got up a Bark Wigwam, where I lay dry that night. I looked out in the morning, and many of them had line in the rain all night Line Line hat is, laid in the rain. - [RR], I saw by their Reaking. Thus the Lord dealt mercifully with me many times, and I fared better than many of them. In the morning they took the blood of the Deer, and put it into the Paunch, and so boyled it. I could eat nothing of that, though they ate it sweetly. And yet they were so nice in other things,nicenice Rowlandson uses an older definition of “nice” to mean overly exacting or fastidious. - [RR]40 that when I had fetcht water, and had put the Dish I dipt the water with, into the Kettle of water which I brought, they would say, they would knock me down; for they said, it was a sluttish trick.

The fifteenth Remove.

We went on our Travel. I having got one handfull of Ground-nuts, for my support that day they gave me my load, and I went on cheerfully [with the thoughts of going homeward] haveing my burden more on my back than my spirit: we came to Baquang River again that day, near which we abode a few dayes. Sometimes one of them would give me a Pipe, another a little Tobacco, another a little Salt: which I would change for a little Victuals. I cannot but think what a Wolvish appetite persons have in a starving condition: for many times when they gave me that which was hot, I was so greedy, that I should burn my mouth, that it would trouble me hours after, and yet I should quickly do the same again. And after I was thorougly hungry, I was never again satisfied. For though sometimes it fell out, that I got enough, and did eat till I could eat no more, yet I was as unsatisfied as I was when I began. And now could I see that Scripture verified (there being many Scriptures which we do not take notice of, or understand till we are afflicted) Mic. 6.14. Thou shalt eat and not be satisfied. Now might I see more than ever before, the miseries that 41 sin hath brought upon us: Many times I should be ready to run out against the Heathen, but the Scripture would quiet me again, Amos, 3. 6. Shal there be evil in the City, and the Lord hath not done it? The Lord help me to make a right improvment of His Word, and that I might learn that great lesson, Mic. 6.8, 9. He hath shewed thee (Oh Man) what is good, and what doth the Lord require of thee, but to do justly, and love mercy, and walk humbly with thy God? Hear ye the rod, and who hath appointed it.

The sixteenth Remove.

We began this Remove with wading over Baquag River: the water was up to the knees, and the stream very swift, and so cold that I thought it would have cut me in sunder. I was so weak and feeble, that I reeled as I went along, and thought there I must end my dayes at last, after my bearing and getting thorough so many difficulties; the Indians stood laughing to see me staggering along: but in my distress the Lord gave me experience of the truth, and goodness of that promise, Isai. 43.2. When thou passest thorough the Waters, I will be with thee, and through the Rivers, they shall not overflow thee. Then I sat down to put on my stockins and shoos, with the teares running down mine eyes, and many sorrowfull thoughts in my heart, but I gat up to go along with them. Quickly there came up to us an Indian, who informed them, that I must go to Wachuset WachusetWachuset Wachusett was a Nipmuc refuge and gathering place. The name refers both to a stand-alone mountain (Wachusett Mountain in Massachusetts) and the land around it, which is still an important place in Nipmuc culture today. In the spring of 1676, Quinnapin, Weetamo, and many other tribal leaders met for a council that discussed, among other things, the possibilities of peacemaking. - [RR] to my master, for there was a Letter come from 42 the Council to the Saggamores, about redeeming the Captives, and that there would be another in fourteen dayes, and that I must be there ready. My heart was so heavy before that I could scarce speak or go in the path; and yet now so light, that I could run. My strength seemed to come again, and recruit my feeble knees, and aking heart: yet it pleased them to go but one mile that night, and there we stayed two dayes. In that time came a company of Indians to us, near thirty, all on horse-back. My heart skipt within me, thinking they had been English men at the first sight of them, for they were dressed in English Apparel, with Hats, white Neckcloths, and Sashes about their wasts, and Ribbonds upon their shoulders: but when they came near, their was a vast difference between the lovely faces of Christians, and the foul looks of those Heathens, which much damped my spirit again.

The seventeenth Remove.

A comfortable Remove it was to me, because of my hopes. They gave me a pack, and along we went chearfully; but quickly my will proved more than my strength; having little or no refreshing my strength failed me, and my spirits were almost quite gone. Now may I say with David, Psal. I 19.22, 23, 24. Psalm_109 Psalm_109 This line in fact comes from Psalm 109. - [RR] I am poor and needy, and my heart is wounded within me. I am gone like the shadow when it declineth: I am tossed up and down like the locusts: my knees are weak through fasting, and my flesh faileth 43 of fatness. At night we came to an Indian Town, and the Indians sate down by a Wigwam discoursing, but I was almost spent, and could scarce speak. I laid down my load, and went into the Wigwam, and there sat an Indian boyling of Horses feet (they being wont to eat the flesh first, and when the feet were old and dried, and they had nothing else, they would cut off the feet and use them) I asked him to give me a little of his Broth, or Water they were boiling in; he took a dish, and gave me one spoonfull of Samp SampSamp A porridge made of corn. - [RR], and bid me take as much of the Broth as I would. Then I put some of the hot water to the Samp, and drank it up, and my spirit came again. He gave me also a piece of the Ruff or Ridding of the small Guts,RuffRuff The tough parts of the meat, or the parts that would normally have been disposed, because they were considered too hard to eat or inedible. - [RR]and I broiled it on the coals; and now may I say with Jonathan, See, I pray you, how mine eyes have been enlightened, because I tasted a little of this honey, 1 Sam. 14.29. Now is my Spirit revived again, though means be never so inconsiderable, yet if the Lord bestow his blessing upon them, they shall refresh both Soul and Body.

The eighteenth Remove.

We took up our packs and along we went, but a wearisome day I had of it. As we went along I saw an English-man stript naked, and lying dead upon the ground, but knew not who it was. Then we came to another Indian Town, where we stayed all night. In this Town there were four English Children, Captives; and one of them my own Sisters. SistersSisters In other words, her sister’s child, Rowlandson's niece. - [RR] 44 I went to see how she did, and she was well, considering her Captive-condition. I would have tarried that night with her, but they that owned her would not suffer it. Then I went into another Wigwam, where they were boyling Corn and Beans, which was a lovely sight to see, but I could not get a taste thereof. Then I went to another Wigwam, where there were two of the English Children; the Squaw was boyling Horses feet, then she cut me off a little piece, and gave one of the English Children a piece also. Being very hungry I had quickly eat up mine, but the Child could not bite it, it was so tough and sinewy, but lay sucking, gnawing, chewing and slabbering of it in the mouth and hand, then I took it of the Child, and eat it my self, and savoury it was to my taste. Then I may say as Job Chap. 6.7. The things that my soul refused to touch, are as my sorrowfull meat. Thus the Lord made that pleasant refreshing, which another time would have been an abomination. Then I went home to my mistresses Wigwam; and they told me I disgraced my master with begging, and if I did so any more, they would knock me in head: I told them, they had as good knock me in head as starve me to death.

The ninteenth Remove.

They said, when we went out, that we must travel to Wachuset this day. But a bitter weary day I had of it, travelling now three dayes to gether, without resting any day between. At last, after many weary 45 steps, I saw Wachuset hills, but many miles off. Then we came to a great Swamp, through which we travelled up to the knees, in mud and water, which was heavy going to one tyred before. Being almost spent, I thought I should have sunk down at last, and never gat out; but I may say, as in Psal. 94.18. When my foot slipped, thy mercy, O Lord held me up. Going along, having indeed my life, but little spirit, Philip, who was in the Company, came up and took me by the hand, and said, Two weeks more and you shal be Mistress again. I asked him, if he spake true? he answered, Yes, and quickly you shal come to your master again; who had been gone from us three weeks. After many weary steps we came to Wachuset, where he was hehe Quanopin, Rowlandson's “master” at this point. - [RR]: and glad I was to see him. He asked me, When I washt me? I told him not this month, then he fetcht me some water himself, and bid me wash, and gave me the Glass to see how I lookt; and bid his Squaw give me something to eat: so she gave me a mess of Beans and meat, and a little Ground-nut Cake. I was wonderfully revived with this favour shewed me, Psal. 106.46 He made them also to be pittied, of all those that carried them Captives.

My master had three Squaws, living sometimes with one, and sometimes with another one, this old Squaw, at whose Wigwan I was, and with whom my Master had been those three weeks. Another was Wettimore, with whom I had lived and served all this while: A severe and proud Dame she was; 46 bestowing every day in dressing her self neat as much time as any of the Gentry of the land: powdering her hair, and painting her face, going with Neck-laces, with Jewels in her ears, and Bracelets upon her hands: When she had dressed her self, her work was to make Girdles of Wampom and Beads. The third Squaw was a younger one, by whom he had two Papooses. By that time I was refresht by the old Squaw, with whom my master was, Wettimores Maid came to call me home, at which I fell a weeping. Then the old Squaw told me, to encourage me, that if I wanted victuals, I should come to her, and that I should ly there in her Wigwam. Then I went with the maid, and quickly came again and lodged there. The Squaw laid a Mat under me, and a good Rugg over me; the first time I had any such kindness showed me. I understood that Wettimore thought, that if she should let me go and serve with the old Squaw, she would be in danger to loose, not only my service, but the redemption pay also. And I was not a little glad to hear this; being by it raised in my hopes, that in Gods due time there would be an end of this sorrowfull hour. Then came an Indians and asked me to knit him three pair of Stockins, for which I had a Hat, and a silk handkerchief. Then another asked me to make her a shift, for which she gave me an Apron.

Then came Tom and Peter, with the second Letter from the Council, about the Captives. Though they were Indians, I gat them by the hand, and 47 burst out into tears; my heart was so full that I could not speak to them; but recovering my self, I asked them how my husband did, & all my friends and acquaintance? they said, They are all very well but melancohly. They brought me two Biskets, and a pound of Tobacco. The Tobacco I quickly gave away; when it was all gone, one asked me to give him a pipe of Tobacco, I told him it was all gone; then began he to rant and threaten. I told him when my Husband came I would give him some: Hang him Rogue (sayes he) I will knock out his brains, if he comes here. And then again, in the same breath they would say, That if there should come an hunddred without Guns, they would do them no hurt. So unstable and like mad men they were. So that fearing the worst, I durst not send to my Husband, though there were some thoughts of his coming to Redeem and fetch me, not knowing what might follow; For there was little more trust to them then to the master they served. When the Letter was come, the Saggamores met to consult about the Captives, and called me to them to enquire how much my husband would give to redeem me, when I came I sate down among them, as I was wont to do, as their manner is: Then they bade me stand up, and said, they were the General Court. They bid me speak what I thought he would give, Now knowing that all we had was destroyed by the Indians, I was in a great strait: I thought if I should speak of but a little, it would be slighted, and hinder 48 the matter; if of a great sum, I knew not where it would be procured: yet at a venture, I said Twenty pounds, Pounds Pounds It is pretty much impossible to translate the value of twenty pounds into modern money, but this would be a substantial though not astronomical sum, the equivalent of perhaps tens of thousands of dollars in twenty-first century purchasing power. - [] yet desired them to take less; but they would not hear of that, but sent that message to Boston, that for Twenty pounds I should be redeemed. It was a Praying- Indian that wrote their Letter for them. There was another Praying Indian, who told me, that he had a brother, that would not eat Horse; his conscience was so tender and scrupulous (though as large as hell, for the destruction of poor Christians) Then he said, he read that Scripture to him, 2 Kings, 6.25. There was a famine in Samatia, and behold they besieged it, untill an Asses head was sold for fourscore pieces of silver, and the fourth part of a Kab KabKab An ancient Hebrew measurement of about two liters. - [RR]of Doves dung, for five pieces of silver. He expounded this place to his brother, and shewed him that it was lawfull to eat that in a Famine which is not at another time. And now, sayes he, he will eat Horse with any Indiann of them all. There was another Praying- Indian, who when he had done all the mischief that he could, betrayed his own Father into the English hands, thereby to purchase his own life. Another Praying- Indian was at Sudbury-fight, SudburySudbury The battle of Sudbury took place on April 21st, 1676. It is now generally considered the last major victory for Indigenous forces, who successfully raided the town of Sudbury and then ambushed the colonists who came to help. Indigenous fortunes in battle declined from there, a narrative Rowlandson herself reinforced: she described the return of the indigenous fighters who, though they had won, seemed strangely unhappy, like “Dogs. . . which have lost their ears.” - [RR] though, as he deserved, he was afterward hanged for it. There was another Praying Indian, so wicked and cruel, as to wear a string about his neck, strung with Christians fingers. Another Praying-Indian, when they went to Sudbury-fight, went with them, and his Squaw also with him, with her Papoos at her 49 back: Before they went to that fight, they got a company together to Powaw; powaw powaw The term pow wow originated from the Algonquian “pau wau” for “medicine man.” English settlers used the term to refer to meetings of Indigenous medicine men or Indigenous gatherings of any kind, which is how the word is still understood today. - [RR] the manner was as followeth. There was one that kneeled upon a Deer-skin, with the company round him in a ring who kneeled, and striking upon the ground with their hands, and with sticks; and muttering or humming with their mouths, besides him who kneeled in the ring, there also stood one with a Gun in his hand: Then he one the Deer-skin made a speech, and all manifested assent to it: and so they did many times together. Then they bade him with the Gun go out of the ring, which he did, but when he was out, they called him in again; but he seemed to make a stand, then they called the more earnestly, till he returned again: Then they all sang. Then they gave him two Guns, in either hand one: And so he on the Deer-skin began again; and at the end of every sentence in his speaking, they all assented, humming or muttering with their mouthes, and striking upon the ground with their hands. Then they bade him with the two Guns go out of the ring again; which he did, a little way. Then they called him in again, but he made a stand; so they called him with greater earnestness; but he stood reeling and wavering as if he knew not whither he should stand or fall, or which way to go. Then they called him with exceeding great vehemency, all of them, one and another: after a little while he turned in, staggering as he went, with his Armes stretched out, in 50 either hand a Gun. As soon as he came in, they all sang and rejoyced exceedingly a while. And then he opened the Deer-skin, made another speech unto which they all assented in a rejoicing manner: and so they ended their business, and forthwith went to Sudbury fight. To my thinking they went without any scruple, but that they should prosper, and gain the victory: And they went out not so rejoycing, but they came home with as great a Victory. For they said they had killed two Captains, and almost an hundred men. One English-man they brought along with them: and he said, it was too true, for they had made sad work at Sudbury, as indeed it proved. Yet they came home without that rejoycing and triumphing over their victory, which they were wont to shew at other times: but rather like Dogs (as they say) which have lost their cars. Yet I could not pereceive that it was for their own loss of men: They said, they had not lost above five or six: and I missed none, excep in one Wigwam. When they went, they acted as if the Devil had told them that they should gain the victory: and now they acted, as if the Devil had told them they should have a fall. Whither it were so or no, I cannot tell, but so it proved, for quickly they began to fall, and so held on that Summer, till they came to utter ruine. They came home on a Sabbath day, and the Powaw that kneeled upon the Deer-skin came home (I may say, without abule) as black as the Devil. 51 When my master came home, be came to me and bid me make a shirt for his Papoos, of a hollandlaced Pillowbeer. About that time there came an Indian to me and bid me come to his Wigwam, at night, and he would give me some Pork & Ground nuts. Which I did, and as I was eating, another Indian said to me, he seems to be your good Friend, but he killed two Englishmen at Sudbury, and there ly their Cloaths behind you: I looked behind me, and there I saw bloody Cloaths, with Bullet holes in them; yet the Lord suffered not this wretch to do me any hurt; Yea, instead of that, he many times refresht me: five or six times did he and his Squaw refresh my feeble carcass. If J went to their Wigwam at any time, they would alwayes give me something, and yet they were strangers that I never saw before. Another Squaw gave me a piece of fresh Pork, and a little Salt with it, and lent me her Pan to Fry it in; and I cannot but remember what a sweet, pleasant and delightfull relish that bit had to me, to this day. So little do we prize common mercies when we have them to the full.

The twentieth Remove.

It was their usual manner to remove, when they bad done any mischief, lest they should be found out: and so they did at this time. We went about three or four miles, and there they built a great Wigwam, big enough to hold an hundred Indians, which they did in preparation to a great day of Dancing. 52 They would say now amongst themselves, that the Governour would be so angry for his loss at Sudbury, that he would send no more about the Captives, which made me grieve and tremble. My Sister being not far from the place where we now were: and hearing that I was here, desired her master to let her come and see me, and he was willing to it, and would go with her: but she being ready before him, told him she wonld go before, and was come within a Mile or two of the place; Then he overtook her, and began to rant as if he had been mad; and made her go back again in the Rain; so that I never saw her till I saw her in Charlestown. But the Lord requited many of their ill doings, for this Indian her Master, was hanged afterward at Boston. The Indians now began to come from all quarters, against their merry dancing day. Among some of them came one Good wife Kettle: KettleKettle Elizabeth Kettle, who had been captured in Lancaster. - [RR] I told her my heart was so heavy that it was ready to break: so is mine too said she, but yet said, I hope we shall hear some good news shortly. I could hear how earnestly my Sister desired to see me, & I as earnestly desired to see her: and yet neither of us could get an opportunity. My Daughter was also now about a mile off, and I had not seen her in nine or ten weeks, as I had not seen my Sister since our first taking. I earnestly desired them to let me go and see them: yea, I intreated, begged, and perswaded them, but to let me see my Daughter; and yet so hard hearted were they, that they would not 53 suffer it. They made use of their tyrannical power whilst they had it: but through the Lords wonderfull mercy, their time was now but short.

On a Sabbath day, the Sun being about an hour high in the afternoon; came Mr. John HoarHoarHoar John Hoar was a lawyer enlisted by Mr. Rowlandson to negotiate the return of his wife. - [RR] ( the Council permitting him, and his own foreward spirit inclining him) together with the two forementioned Indians, Tom and Peter with their third Letter from the Council. When they came near, I was abroad. though I saw them not, they presently called me in, and bade me sit down and not stir. Then they catched up their Guns, and away they ran, as if an Enemy had been at hand; and the Guns went off apace I manifested some great trouble, and they asked me what was the matter? I told them, I thought they had killed the English-man (for they had in the mean time informed me that an English-man was come) they said, No; They shot over his Horse and under, and before his Horse; and they pusht him this way and that way, at their pleasure: shewing what they conld do: Then they let them come to their Wigwams. I begged of them to let me see the English man, but they would not. But there was I fain to sit their pleasure. When they had talked their fill with him, they suffered me to go to him. We asked each other of our welfare, and how my Husband did, and all my Friends? He told me they were all well, and would be glad to see me. Amongst other things which my Husband sent me, there came a pound of Tobacco: which I sold for nine shillings in 54 Money: for many of the Indians for want of Tobacco, smoaked Hemlock, and Ground-Ivy. It was a great mistake in any, who thought I sent for Tobacco: for through the savour of God, that desire was overcome. I now asked them, whither I should go home with Mr. Hoar? They answered No, one and another of them: and it being night, we lay down with that answer; in the morning, Mr Hoar invited the Saggamores to Dinner; but when we went to get it ready, we fond that they had stollen the greatest part of the Provision Mr. Hoar had brought, out of his Bags, in the night: And we may see the wonderfull power of God, in that one passage, in that when there was such a great number of the Indians together, and so greedy of a little good food; and no English there, but Mr. Hoar and my self: that there they did not knock us in the head, and take what we had: there being not only some Provision, but also Trading-cloth, a part of the twenty pounds agreed upon: But instead of doing us any mischief, they seemed to be ashamed of the fact, and said, it were some Matchit Indian MatchitMatchit "Matchit" translates to “bad.” - [RR] that did it. Oh, that we could believe that there is no thing too hard for God! God shewed his Power over the Heathen in this, as he did ever the hungry Lyons when Daniel DanielDaniel Daniel 6:22. - [RR] was cast into the Den. Mr. Hoar called them betime to Dinner, but they are very little, they being so busie in dressing themselves, and getting ready for their Dance: which was carried one by eight of them; four Men and 55 four Squaws: My master and mistriss being two. He was dressed in his Holland shirt, with great Laces sewed at the cail of it, he had his silver Buttons, his white Stockins, his Garters were hung round with Shillings, and he had Girdles of Wampom upon his head and shoulders. She had a Kersey kerseykersey A coarse woolen cloth. - [RR] Coat, and covered with Girdles of Wampom from the Loins upward: her armes from her elbows to her hands were covered with Bracelets; there were handfulls of Neck-laces about her neck, and severall sorts of Jewels in her ears. She had fine red Stokins, and white Shoos, her hair powdered and face painted Red, that was alwayes before Black. And all the Dancers were after the same manner. There were two other singing and knocking on a Kettle for their musick. They keept hopping up and down one after another, with a Kettle of water in the midst, standing warm upon some Embers, to drink of when they were dry. They held on till it was almost night, throwing out Wampom to the standers by. At night I asked them again, if I should go home? They all as one said No, except my Husband would come for me. When we were lain down, my Master went out of the Wigwam, and by and by sent in an Indian called James the Printer, who told Mr. Hoar, that my Master would let me go home to morrow, if he would let him have one pint of Liquors. Then Mr. Hoar called his own Indians, Tom and Peter, and bid them & go and see whither he would promise it before 56 them three: and if he would, he should have it; which he did, and he had it. Then Philip smeling the business cal'd me to him, and asked me what I would give him, to tell me some good news, and speak a good word for me, I told him, I could not tell what to give him, I would anothing I had, and asked him what he would have? He said, two Coats and twenty shillings in Mony, and half a bushel of seed Corn, and some Tobacco. I thanked him for his love: but I knew the good news as well as the crafty Fox. My Master after he had had his drink, quickly came ranting into the Wigwam again, and called for Mr. Hoar, drinking to him, and saying, He was a good man: and then again he would say, Hang him Rogue: Being almost drunk, he would drink to him, and yet presently say he should be hanged. Then he called for me, I trembled to hear him, yet I was sain to go to him, and he drank to me, shewing no incivility. He was the first Indian I saw drunk all the while that I was amongst them. At last his Squaw ran out, and he after her, round the Wigwam, with his mony jingling at his knees: But she escaped him: But having an old Squaw he ran to her: and so through the Lords mercy, we were no more troubled that night. Yet I had not a comfortable nights rest: for I think I can say, I did not sleep for three nights together. The night before the Letter came from the Council, I could not rest. I was so full of feares and troubles, God many times leaving us most in the dark, when deliverance 57 is nearest: yea, at this time I could not rest, night nor day. The next night I was overjoyed, Mr. Hoar being come, and that with such good tidings. The third night I was even swallowed up with the thoughts of things, viz. that ever I should go home again; and that I must go, leaving my Children behind me in the Wilderness; so that sleep was now almost departed from mine eyes.

On Tuesday morning they called their General Court (as they call it) to consult and determine, whether I should go home or no: And they all as one man did seemingly consent to it, that I should go home; except Philip,negotiationsnegotations Metacom did not agree with the strategy to trade captives as part of the negotiations with the English settlers. - [RR] who would not come among them.

But before I go any further, I would take leave to mention a few remarkable passages of providence, which I took special notice of in my afflicted time.

1. Of the fair opportunity lost in the long March, a little after the Fort-fight,Fort_FightFort_Fight Rowlandson is referring to what is now called the “Great Swamp Fight,” which occurred in December 1675 when colonists attacked a large Narragansett and Wampanoag settlement in Rhode Island. Narragansett forces joined the war effort after this attack. The battle itself which was one of the bloodiest of the war and hugely destructive to both sides. - [RR] when our English Army was so numerous, and in pursuit of the Enemy, and so near as to take several and destroy them: and the Enemy in such distriss for food, that our men might track them by their rooting in the earth for Groundnuts, whilest they were flying for their lives. I say, that then our Army should want Provision, and be forced to leave their pursuit and return homeward: and the very next week the Enemy came upon our Town, like Bears bereft of their whelps, or so many ravenous Wolves, rending us and our Lambs to 58 death. But what shall I say? God seemed to leave his People to themselves, and order all things for his own holy ends. Shal there be evil in the City AmosAmos Amos 3:6, 6:6-7, Psalm 118:23. - [RR] and the Lord hath not done it? They are not grieved for the affliction of Joseph, therefore shal they go Captive, with the first that go Captive. It is the Lords doing, and it should be marvelous in our eyes.

2. I cannot but remember how the Indians derided the slowness, and dulness of the English Army, in its setting out. For after the desolations at Lancaster and Medfield, as I went along with them, they asked me when I thought the English Army would come after them? I told them I could not tell: It may be they will come in May, said they. Thus did they scoffe at us, as if the English would be a quarter of a year getting ready

3. Which also I have hinted before, when the English Army with new supplies were sent forth to pursue after the enemy, & they understanding it: fled before them till they came to Baquaug River, where they forthwith went over safely: that that River should be impassable to the English. I can but admire to see the wonderfull providence of God in preserving the heathen for farther affliction to our poor Countrey. They could go in great numbers over, but the English must stop: God had an over-ruling hand in all those things.

4. It was thought, if their Corn were cut down, they would starve and dy with hunger: and all their Corn that could be found, was destroyed, and 59 they driven from that little they had in store, into the Woods in the midst of Winter; and yet how to admiration did the Lord preserve them for his holy ends, and the destruction of many still amongst the English! strangely did the Lord provide for them; that I did not see (all the time I was among them) one Man, Woman, or Child, die with hunger.

Though many times they would eat that, that a Hog or a Dog would hardly touch; yet by that God strengthned them to be a scourge to his People.

The chief and commonest food was Ground-nuts: They eat also Nuts and Acorns, Harty choaks, Lilly roots, Ground beans, and several other weeds and roots, that I know nor.

They would pick up old bones, and cut them to pieces at the joynts, and if they were full of wormes and magots, they would scald them over the fire to make the vermine come out, and then boile them, and drink up the Liquor, and then beat the great end, of them in a Morter, and so eat them. They would eat Horses guts, and ears, and all sorts of wild Birds which they could catch: also Bear, Venison, Beaver, Tortois, Frogs, Squirrels, Dogs, Skunks, Rattle-snakes; yea, the very Bark of Trees; besides all sorts of creatures, and provision which they plundered from the English. I can but stand in admiration to see the wonderful power of God, in providing for such a vast number of our Enemies 60 in the Wilderness, where there was nothing to be seen, but from hand to mouth. Many times in a morning, the generality of them, would eat up all they had, and yet have some further supply against they wanted. It is said, Psal. 81.13, 14. Oh, that my People bad hearkned to me, and Israel had walked in my wayes, I should soon have subdued their Enemies, and turned my hand against their Adversaries. But now our perverse and evil carriages in the sight of the Lord, have so offended him, that instead of turning his hand against them, the Lord feeds & nourishes them up to be a scourge to the whole Land.

5. Another thing that I would observe is, the strange providence of God in turning things about when the Indians was at the highest, and the English at the lowest. I was with the Enemy eleven weeks and five dayes, and not one Week passed without the fury of the Enemy, and some desolation by fire and sword upon one place or other. They mourned (with their black faces) for their own losses: yet triumphed and rejoyced in their inhumane, and many times devilish cruelty to the English. They would boast much of their Victories; saying, that in two hours time they had destroyed such a Captain, and his Company at such a place; and such a Captain and his Company in such a place; and such a Captain and his Company in such a place: and boast how many Towns they had destroyed, and then scoffe, and say, They had done them a 61 good turn, to send them to Heaven so soon. Again, they would say, This Summer that they would knock all the Rogues in the head, or drive them into the Sea, or make them flie the Countrey: thinking surely, Agag-likeAgag Agag Agag is a title for a biblical king, and the quote comes from the first book of Samuel 15:32. - [RR] , The bitterness of Death is past.Now the Heathen begins to think all is their own, & the poor Christians hopes to fail (as to man) and now their eyes are more to God, and their hearts sigh heaven-ward: and to say in good earnest, Help Lord, or we perish: When the Lord had brought his people to this, that they saw no help in any thing but himself; then be takes the quarrel into his own hand: and though they had made a pit, in their own imaginations, as deep as hell for the Christians that Summer, yet the Lord hurll'd them selves into it. And the Lord had not so many wayes before to preserve them, but now he hath as many to destroy them.

But to return again to my going home, where we may see a remarkable change of Providence: At first they were all against it, except my Husband would come for me; but afterwards they assented to it, and seemed much to rejoyce in it; some askt me to send them some Bread, others some Tobacco, others shaking me by the hand, offering me a Hood and Scarfe to ride in; not one moving hand or tongue against it. Thus hath the Lord answered my poor desire, and the many earnest requests of others put up unto God for me. In my travels an Indian came to me, and told me, if I were willing, 62 he and his Squaw would run away, and go home along with me: I told him No: I was not willing to run away, but desired to wait Gods time, that I might go home quietly, and without fear. And now God hath granted me my desire. O the wonderfull power of God that I have seen, and the experience that I have had: I have been in the midst of those roaring Lyons, and Salvage Bears, that feared neither God, nor Man, nor the Devil, by night and day, alone and in company: sleeping all sorts together, and yet not one of them ever offered me the least abuse of unchastity to me, in word or action. Though some are ready to say, I speak it for my own credit; But I speak it in the presence of God, and to his Glory. Gods Power is as great now, and as sufficient to save, as when he preserved Daniel in the Lions Den; or the three Children in the fiery Furnace. I may well say as his Psal. 107.12 Oh give thanks unto the Lord for he is good, for his mercy endureth for ever. Let the Redeemed of the Lord say so, whom he hath redeemed from the hand of the Enemy, especially that I should come away in the midst of so many hundreds of Enemies quietly and peacably, and not a Dog moving his tougue. So I took my leave of them, and in coming along my heart melted into tears, more then all the while I was with them, and I was almost swallowed up with the thoughts that ever I should go home again. About the Sun going down, Mr. Hoar, and my self, and the two 63 Indians came to Lancaster, and a solemn sight it was to me. There had I lived many comfortable years amongst my Relations and Neighbours, and now not one Christian to be seen, nor one house lest standing. We went on to a Farm house that was yet standing, where we lay all night: and a comfortable lodging we had, though nothing but straw to ly on The Lord preserved us in safety that night, and raised us up again in the morning, and carried us along, that before noon, we came to Concord. Now was I full of joy, and yet not without sorrow: joy to see such a lovely sight, so many Christians together, and some of them my Neighbours: There I met with my Brother, and my Brother in Law, who asked me, if I knew where his Wife was? Poor heart! he had helped to bury her, and knew it not; she being shot down by the house was partly burnt: so that those who were at Boston at the desolation of the Town, and came back afterward, and buried the dead, did not know her. Yet I was not without sorrow, to think how many were looking and longing, and my own Children amongst the rest, to enioy that deliverance that I had now received: and I did not know whither ever I should see them again. Being recruited with food and raiment, we went to Boston that day, where I met with my dear Husband, but the thoughts of our dear Children, one being dead, and the other we could not tell where, abated our comfort each to other. I 64 was not before so much hem'd in with the merciless and cruel Heathen, but now as much with pittiful, tender-hearted, and compassionate Christians. In that poor, and destressed, and beggerly condition I was received in, I was kindly entertained in severall Houses: so much love I received from several (some of whom I knew, and others I knew not] that I am not capable to declare it. But the Lord knows them all by name: The Lord reward them seven fold into their bosoms of his spirituals, for their temporals. The twenty pounds the price of my redemption was raised by some Boston Gentlemen, and Ms.Usher UsherUsher There is likely a typographical error here, since "Ms." was not in use in seventeenth-century English. So whether this reference is to a man or a woman named Usher is uncertain. - [RR], whose bounty and religious charity, I would not forget to make mention of. Then Mr. Thomas Shepard of Charlstown received us into his House, where we continued eleven weeks; and a Father and Mother they were to us. And many more tender-hearted Friends we met with in that place. We were now in the midst of love, yet not without much and frequent heaviness of heart for our poor Children, and other Relations, who were still in affliction. The week following, after my coming in, the Governour and Gouncil sent forth to the Indians again; and that not without saccess; for they brought in my Sister, and Good-wife Kettle: Their not knowing where our Children were, was a sore tryal to us still, and yet we were not without secret hopes that we should see them again. That which was dead lay heavier upon my spirit, than those which were alive 65 mercy on both hands. Now hath God fulfiled that precious Scripture which was such a comfort to me in my distressed condition, When my heart was ready to sink into the Earth [my Children being gone I could not tell whither] and my knees trembled under me, And I was walking through the valley of the shadow of Death: Then the Lord brought, and now has fulfilled that reviving word unto me: Thus saith the LordJeremiah Jeremiah Jeremiah 31:16. - [RR], Refrain thy voice from weeping, and thine eyes from tears. for thy Work shall be rewarded, saith the Lord, and they shall come again from the Land of the Enemy. Now we were between them, the one on the East, and the other on the West: Our Son being nearest, we went to him first, to Portsmouth, where we met with him, and with the Major also: who told us he had done what he could, but could not redeem him under seven ponnds; which the good People thereabouts were pleased to pay. The Lord reward the Major, and all the rest, though unknown so me, for their labour of Love. My Sitters Son was redeemed for four pounds, which the Council gave order for the payment of Having now received one of our Children, we hastened toward the other: going back through Newbury, my Husband Preached there on the Sabbath-day: for which they rewarded him many fold.

On Monday we came to Charlstown, where we heard that the Governour of Road-Island had sent over for our Daughter, to take care of her, being now 67 within his Jurisdiction: which should not pass without our acknowledgments. But she being nearer Rehoboth than Road-Island, Mr. Newman went over, and took care of her, and brought her to his own House. And the goodness of God was admirable to us in our low estate, in that he raised up passionate Friends on every side to us, when we had nothing to recompance any for their love. The Indians were now gone that way, that it was apprehended dangerous to go to her: But the Carts which carried Provision to the English Army, being guarded, brought her with them to Dorchester, where we received her safe: blessed be the Lord sor it, For great is his Power, and he can do whatsoever seemeth him good. Her coming in was after this manner: She was travelling one day with the Indians, with her basket at her back; the company of Indians were got before her, and gone out of sight, all except one Squaw; she followed the Squaw till night, and then both of them lay down, having nothing over them but the heavens, and under them but the earth. Thus she travelled three dayes together, not knowing whither she was going: having nothing to eat or drink but water, and green Hirtle-berries. At last they came into Providence, where she was kindly entertained by several of that Town. The Indians often said, that I should never have her under twenty pounds: But now the Lord hath brought her in upon free-cost, and given her to me the second 68 time. The Lord make us a blessing indeed, each to others. Now have I seen that Scripture also fulfilled, Deut. 30: 4, 7. If any of thine be driven out to the outmost parts of heaven, from thence will the Lord thy God gather thee, and from thence will he fetch thee. And the Lord thy God will put all these curses upon thine enemies, and on them which hate thee, which persecuted thee. Thus hath the Lord brought me and mine out of that horrible pit, and hath set us in the midst of tender-hearted and compassionate Christians. It is the desire of my soul, that we may walk worthy of the mercies received, and which we are receiving.

Our Family being now gathered together (those of us that were living) the South Church in Boston hired an House for us: Then were moved from Mr. Shepards, those cordial Friends, and went to Boston, where we continued about three quarters of a year: Still the Lord went along with us, and provided graciously for us. I thought it somewhat strange to set up House keeping with bare walls; but as Solomon sayes,SolomonSolomon Ecclesiastes 10:19. - [RR] Mony answers all things; and that we had through the benevolence of Christian friends, some in this Town, and some in that, and others: And some from England, that in a little time we might look, and see the House furnished with love. The Lord hath been exceeding good to us in our low estate, in that when we had neither house nor home, nor other necessaries; the Lord so moved the hearts of these and those towards us, 69 that we wanted neither food, nor raiment for our selves or ours, Prov. 18.24. There is a Friend which sticketh closer than a Brother. And how many such Friends have we found, and now living amongst? And truly such a Friend have we found him to be unto us, in whose house we lived, viz. Mr. James Whitcomb, a Friend unto us near hand, and afar off.

I can remember the time, when I used to sleep quietly without workings in my thoughts, whole nights together, but now it is other wayes with me. When all are fast about me, and no eye open, but his who ever waketh, my thoughts are upon things past, upon the awfull dispensation of the Lord towards us; upon his wonderfull power and might, in carrying of us through so many difficulties, in returning us in safety, and suffering none to hurt us. I remember in the night season, how the other day I was in the midst of thousands of enemies, & nothing but death before me: It was then hard work to perswade my self, that ever I should be satisfied with bread again. But now we are fed with the finest of the Wheat, and, as I may say, With honey out of the rock:Psalm_81 Psalm_81 Psalm 81:16. - [RR] In stead of the Husk, we have the fatted CalfHuskHusk See Luke 15:11-32. - [RR] : The thoughts of these things in the particulars of them, and of the love and goodness of God towards us, make it true of me, what David said of himself, Psal. 6.6. I watered my Couch with my tears. Oh! the wonderfull power of God that mine eyes have seen, affording 70 matter enough for my thoughts to run in, that when others are sleeping mine eyes are weeping.

I have seen the extrem vanity of this World: One hour I have been in health, and wealth, wanting nothing: But the next hour in sickness and wounds, and death, having nothing but sorrow and affliction.

Before I knew what affliction meant, I was ready sometimes to wish for it. When I lived in prosperity; having the comforts of the World about me, my relations by me, my Heart chearfull: and taking little care for any thing; and yet seeing many, whom I preferred before my self, under many tryals and afflictions, in sickness, weakness, poverty, losses, crosses, and cares of the World, I should be sometimes jealous least I should have my portion in this life, and that Scripture would come to my mind, Heb. 12.6. For whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth, and scourgeth every Son whom he receiveth. But now I see the Lord had his time to scourge and chasten me. The portion of some is to have their afflictions by drops, now one drop and then another; but the dregs of the Cup, the Wine of astonishment: like a sweeping rain that leaveth no food, did the Lord prepare to be my portion Affliction I wanted, and affliction I had, full measure (I thought) pressed down and running over: yet I see, when God calls a Person to any thing, and through never so many difficulties 71 yet he is fully able to carry them through and make them see, and say they have been gainers thereby. And I hope I can say in some measure, As David didPsalm_119Psalm_119 Psalm 119:71. - [RR], It is good for me that I have been afflicted: The Lord hath shewed me the vanity of these outward things. That they are the Vanity of vanities, and vexation of spirit;vanityvanity Ecclesiastes 1:2, 14. - [RR] that they are but a shadow, a blast, a bubble, and things of no continuance. That we must rely on God himself, and our whole dependance must be upon him. If trouble from smaller matters begin to arise in me, I have something at hand to check my self with, and say, why am I troubled? It was but the other day that if I had had the world, I would have given it for my freedom, or to have been a Servant to a Christian. I have learned to look beyond present and smaller troubles, and to be quieted under them, as Moses said, Exod. 14.13. Stand still and see the salvation of the Lord.

FINIS.

Footnotes

headnote Mary Rowlandson’s gripping account of her experience as a captive of native Americans was enormously popular in her own time and became widely influential as the paradigm for the “captivity narrative,” a genre that would have hundreds of examples over the next two centuries and would also help shape works like Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe. The book was originally printed in 1682, first in Massachusetts and then, quickly, in London as well, and was reprinted over and over again for the next century and more. For good reason. Rowlandson’s work taps into colonial fears about the indigenous population, Puritan conceptions of the relationship between the material world and the unseen world of the divine, and the perennial fears of all patriarchal cultures about women’s sexuality. Her experience is compelling and she writes vividly about it. Rowlandson was born Mary White in England in around 1637, and her family moved to the Massachusetts Bay Colony when she was in her early teens. She married Joseph Rowlandson, a Puritan minister, in the 1650s, and they moved to Lancaster, in central Massachusetts, which was then essentially frontier territory for the English colonial settlers. In 1675, the native American leader Metacomet, head of the Wampanoag confederation of indigeneous peoples, led a series of attacks on English settlements. The conflict that followed for the next three years is remembered by English-speaking historians as “Prince Philip’s War,” because “Philip” was the name that the English settlers used for Metacomet. Metacomet’s forces attacked Lancaster on the morning of February 11, 1675, killing thirteen people, including Rowlandson’s sister and her sister’s children, as well as her brother-in-law. The natives took twenty-four English settlers prisoner, including Rowlandson and her three children. (Rowlandson’s husband Joseph was at this moment in Boston, trying to secure appropriations from the Massachusetts legislature to strengthen Lancashire’s defenses against the Wampanoag.) Rowlandson’s six-year-old daughter Sarah died of wounds suffered in the fight. Mary and her surviving children were held captive for eleven weeks, where they were moved progressively further away from the colonial settlements, into what is now the state of Vermont. She was eventually ransomed with funds raised by women in Boston. Joseph Rowlandson died in 1678, and Mary moved with her children to Boston. She remarried there, and published the first edition of her Narrative with the Cambridge, Massachusetts printer Samuel Greene. This version was entitled The Sovereignty and Goodness of God, together with the Faithfulness of His Promises Displayed, being a Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson. It included a preface that was probably written by Increase Mather, the leading Puritan minister in the colonies at the time, and also the author of a narrative account of the war with Metacomet, A Brief History of the War with the Indians, in New-England, published in Boston in 1676. The first London edition of Rowlandson’s more personal account, printed in 1682, came out under the title A True History of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson. The fact that this book was printed three times in a single year on both sides of the Atlantic attests to its significance among the settler-colonists of North America and those in England who were interested in their experience. It also, however, reminds us of the partial and one-sided nature of this account; it is largely because Rowlandson, as a high-ranking woman in the colonial heirarchy, had access to publication that her story was recorded in this way. The native peoples who allied against the colonists preserved their version of the conflict in oral accounts that were, at best, fragmented in the course of the progressive destruction of their culture over the next years and decades. We have much still to learn and understand about the often-violent encounters in this period between European settler-colonists and the indigenous peoples of the land that still typically goes--strangely, if you think about it for a moment--by the name "New England."
preface_ Increase Mather (1639-1723), a Puritan minister, is widely considered to be the author of this preface. He was active in soliciting and collecting accounts of what English-speakers referred to as “King Philip’s War,” including his own “A Brief History of the Warr with the Indians in New England.” Mather also collected essays on miracles and illustrations of divine providence among New Englanders. It is likely that he encouraged Rowlandson to publish this account of her experience.
Tuesday Rowlandson followed the Julian calendar for her dates. In the Georgian calendar, this would be February 1st, 1676. The same is true for the years given throughout the narrative.
Narrhagansets Archeological evidence indicates that ancestors of the Narragansett people lived along what is now the southern New England coast for thousands of years. At their greatest extent, the tribe controlled most of what is now Rhode Island. In “King Philip’s War,” as the English-speakers termed it, the Narragansetts initially tried to stay neutral. They entered the conflict after the English attacked a large Narragansett and Wampanoag fortification in December of 1675. The war was possibly one of the bloodiest in American history; the Narragansetts were decimated, and the end of the war marked the end of most of their resistance to English settlement in Southern New England.
Nipmug The Nipmuc nation once controlled a large territory in central Massachusetts. The town of Lancaster, where the Rowlandsons lived, was located in the Nipmuc territory of “Nashaway.” In “King Philip’s war,” the Nipmucs joined the Wampanoags and Narragansetts to combat the spreading influence of English settlers. In 1676, in a series of raids that included Lancaster, they forced the colonists to abandon the settlements on Nipmuc land. The English tried to settle again in 1701, abandoned the area a second time, and in a third attempt in 1713, formed a permanent settlement of what is now Worcester County. Nipmucs continue to live in and around Worcester today.
Thurseday Forces made up of Narragansett, Wampanoag, and Nipmuc men attacked Lancaster on the morning of February 10th, 1676. They set fire to the town’s bridge and many homes, including the Rowlandson’s. The attackers secured food and supplies for the winter and took twenty-four captives, including Rowlandson and her three children. Lancaster was mostly abandoned after the raid.
known The English had been warned of plans to attack Lancaster by James Quannapohit and Job Kattenanit, two Nipmuc men reportedly converted to Christianity by Daniel Gookin. Even with this advance information, the English did not garrison the town quickly or effectively enough to counter the attack. Daniel Gookin went on to write an account of his efforts to convert native peoples in his “An historical account of the doings and sufferings of the Christian Indians in New England in the years 1675, 1676, 1677.”
Lepers Luke 17:11-10.
vow See Ecclesiastes 5:5-12.
Job See Job 9:12.
Sampson See Judges 14:14.
Psalm_46 See Psalm 46:8-10.
Beats beasts
Remove graphic Rowlandson tells her story in a series of removals, or “removes,” that mark changes to her location as the raiding party traveled across New England. Lisa Brooks, professor of English and American Studies at Amherst College and the author of Our Beloved Kin: New History of King Philip's War created an interactive map of their movements as part of that project that is available here.
Lancaster Rowlandson is referring to an attack on Lancaster in August of 1675 that left seven colonists dead. The attack is thought to have been led by the Nipmuc sachem Monoco, who the Anglo-Americans referred to as “One-Eye’d John.”
Marlborough Suspicion for the Lancaster attack also fell on the “Praying Indians” (Indians who had converted to Christianity and allied with the colonists) of whom there was a large community in nearby Marlborough. This was one of many “Christian Indian” communities in the Bay Colony at the time. At the beginning of the war, their men were recruited to fight for the colonists; already by this time, however, fear that their true loyalties lay with the other side led Bay colony officials to remove them from service and to form five “praying towns” at a greater distance from English settlers. Later, fears that even these plantations were too close to colonists’ homes resulted in a further removal to Deer Island, where hundreds of the interned inhabitants died in the harsh winter that followed.
Moseley Captain Moseley was an infamous military figure who earned his fame by fighting pirates on the New England coast. In August 1675, he arrived in Marlborough. Based on controversial evidence, Moseley accused fifteen of the “Praying Indians” of the Lancaster attack. He took the accused to Boston to parade them through the streets, “pinioned and fastened with lines from neck to neck” as Daniel Gookin wrote. Gookin thought that the affair marked "a foundation and beginning of much trouble, that befell both the English and the Indians afterward."
Wenimesset Menimiset was an important Nipmuc refuge and gathering place along the Ware River. It had operated as a sanctuary for councils since the beginning of the war, and marked the first “Indian Town” that Rowlandson encountered. She was surprised at how many people lived there.
Pepper Robert Pepper was captured on September 4th, 1675, when Captain Beers and a group of 36 colonists were ambushed on their way to reinforce the garrison in Northfield, Massachusetts. Beers and many of his soldiers were killed in the conflict.
Philip Wampanoag leader Metacom, called “King Philip” by the English settlers.
Job See Job 16:2.
Quanopin Quanopin, or Quanopen, was a Narragansett leader. He had three wives, one of whom, Weetamoo (or Weetamoe) was Metacom's brother-in-law and herself a sachem of the ​​Pocasset Wampanoag. Rowlandson was sold to Quanopin by the Narragansett man who had first captured her.
Saggamore Like “Sachem,” “Sagamore” is an anglicization of the Indigenous term for a tribal leader. The word can be used to denote: 1. the leader of a regional tribe or 2. the leader of a confederation of tribes.
Genesis See Genesis 42:36.
outragiousRowlandson means something like “full of rage.”
Jehu Like Jesus
Bacquaug Paquaug River, now called Miller's River. If it refers to the river, “Paquaug” may translate to “clear water.” The word may also refer to the town, Athol, near where the travelers were likely to have crossed. Athol was originally called Pequiog or Pequoiag (“cleared land”) by Nipmuc inhabitants.
Papooses Now generally regarded as an offensive term, “papoose” is a borrowing from Algonquin to describe a young North American indigenous child. In more recent use, it can also refer to cloth baby carriers that wrap around the torso.
Squaws Now generally regarded as an offensive term, “squaw” refers to a North American indigenous woman or wife. The term has a split history: as it derives from the Mohawk language, adapted by French and Canadian settlers, it was always offensive. As it derives from the Algonquin, “squaw” was originally a neutral term that took on racist connotations through its Anglo-American usage through the eighteenth century and afterwards.
Lot In the Old Testament, as Lot and his family fled their burning cities, Lot’s wife looked back. They had been warned not to do so and she was turned into a pillar of salt. In Luke 17:32, Jesus references the story: “Remember Lot’s Wife!” The lesson of the tale is ambiguous, and has been interpreted in different ways by various traditions.
Squaukheag The travelers were here moving through Sokoki territory. The colonists referred to the southernmost Sokoki town as Squaukheag. Colonists later named it “Northfield,” as it was the northernmost “field” habitat that they settled. Rowlandson was happy to see the signs of settlement; she notes with hope a “place where English cattle had once been.”
Ground-nuts Groundnuts refers to the plant Apios Americana, which is native to North America. Its tubers resemble potatoes and the plant was a common source of starch for Indigenous peoples.
Shock A shock, or stook, is a pile of cut-grain (usually wheat, oats, or barley) arranged in a conical stack to allow the stalks to dry before threshing. Threshing is the process by which farmers loosen the edible part of the grain from the husk and straw.
ConnecticotThe Connecticut River.
job See Job 1:21.
Pease Peas (archaic).
Sannup A borrowing from Massachusett, Sannup refers to a North American indigenous husband or alternately to a man with authority under that of a chief.
Naananto Better known as Canonchet, he was a Narragansett sachem who, in 1675, signed a treaty with the colonists that his people would remain neutral in Metacom’s War. In defiance of that signature, he became a war leader as the Narragansetts joined the fight. Canonchet was captured by the English on April 2, 1676 and killed the next day in a public execution. News of his death was shared and celebrated throughout the Bay Colony.
Pocket Rowlandson wore a pocket typical for a New England woman, which was not part of her clothing but rather a small bag tied around her waist. In it, she carried essentials: her Bible, needles and yarn, and at times, morsels of food.
Nux Translates to “Yes” in Narragansett.
pitty Job 19:21.
Judges Judges 16:20.
Mohawks The Mohawk people were one of six nations that formed the confederation of the Haudenosaunee people (often referred to as the Iroquois Confederacy in Anglo-American or French Canadian terms). The Mohawk were the easternmost nation of the Haudenosaunee: at their peak, they controlled most of New York state, southern Ontario, and eastern Quebec. In Metacom’s war, the Mohawk allied with the Bay Colony.
French The French in Canada were Catholic. Rowlandson and her fellow Puritans despised them for this reason.
Flux Flux was a common term for dysentery, a highly contagious, and potentially dangerous, infection of the intestines.
Pascataqua The Piscataqua River divides New Hampshire and Maine. The name is a borrowing from Abenaki which refers both to the river and the land around it. More specifically, the term may refer to where the river branches into two or three channels: one theory of its etymology divides the word into “peske” for branch and “tegwe” for a river with a strong current.
Hezekiah Isaiah 38:3.
Psalm_51 Psalm 51:4.
Publican The tax collector speaks these words in Luke 18:13.
Luke Luke 15:21.
Line hat is, laid in the rain.
nice_ Rowlandson uses an older definition of “nice” to mean overly exacting or fastidious.
Wachuset Wachusett was a Nipmuc refuge and gathering place. The name refers both to a stand-alone mountain (Wachusett Mountain in Massachusetts) and the land around it, which is still an important place in Nipmuc culture today. In the spring of 1676, Quinnapin, Weetamo, and many other tribal leaders met for a council that discussed, among other things, the possibilities of peacemaking.
Psalm_109 This line in fact comes from Psalm 109.
Samp A porridge made of corn.
Ruff The tough parts of the meat, or the parts that would normally have been disposed, because they were considered too hard to eat or inedible.
Sisters In other words, her sister’s child, Rowlandson's niece.
he Quanopin, Rowlandson's “master” at this point.
Pounds It is pretty much impossible to translate the value of twenty pounds into modern money, but this would be a substantial though not astronomical sum, the equivalent of perhaps tens of thousands of dollars in twenty-first century purchasing power.
Kab An ancient Hebrew measurement of about two liters.
Sudbury The battle of Sudbury took place on April 21st, 1676. It is now generally considered the last major victory for Indigenous forces, who successfully raided the town of Sudbury and then ambushed the colonists who came to help. Indigenous fortunes in battle declined from there, a narrative Rowlandson herself reinforced: she described the return of the indigenous fighters who, though they had won, seemed strangely unhappy, like “Dogs. . . which have lost their ears.”
powaw_ The term pow wow originated from the Algonquian “pau wau” for “medicine man.” English settlers used the term to refer to meetings of Indigenous medicine men or Indigenous gatherings of any kind, which is how the word is still understood today.
Kettle Elizabeth Kettle, who had been captured in Lancaster.
Hoar John Hoar was a lawyer enlisted by Mr. Rowlandson to negotiate the return of his wife.
Matchit "Matchit" translates to “bad.”
Daniel Daniel 6:22.
kersey_ A coarse woolen cloth.
negotiations Metacom did not agree with the strategy to trade captives as part of the negotiations with the English settlers.
Fort_Fight Rowlandson is referring to what is now called the “Great Swamp Fight,” which occurred in December 1675 when colonists attacked a large Narragansett and Wampanoag settlement in Rhode Island. Narragansett forces joined the war effort after this attack. The battle itself which was one of the bloodiest of the war and hugely destructive to both sides.
Amos Amos 3:6, 6:6-7, Psalm 118:23.
Agag Agag is a title for a biblical king, and the quote comes from the first book of Samuel 15:32.
Usher There is likely a typographical error here, since "Ms." was not in use in seventeenth-century English. So whether this reference is to a man or a woman named Usher is uncertain.
Jeremiah Jeremiah 31:16.
Solomon Ecclesiastes 10:19.
Psalm_81 Psalm 81:16.
Husk See Luke 15:11-32.
Psalm_119 Psalm 119:71.
vanity Ecclesiastes 1:2, 14.